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2 5 7/ 







Capt. C. H. B. GRANT 

SESSION 1937-1938. 





-* — 

The number of attendances during the past Session was : — 
341 members, 30 members of the B. O. U., and 129 guests — 
a total of 500. 

Mr. G. M. Mathews, the Chairman of the Club, gave his 
annual address at the November Meeting, dealing with general 
matters, and a Regional Review from October 1936 to October 

Among the many interesting communications and exhibits 
given during the Session were — Mr. W. B. Alexander and 
Mr. H. N. Southern's remarks on the distribution of the 
bridled form of the Common Guillemot ; Professor J. B. 
Cleland's talk on the bird-life in Australia ; Mr. J. Delacour's 
account of his cruise with Lord Moyne ; Dr. Hellmayr's talk 
on the birds in and around Vienna ; Dr. G. Carmichael Low's 
exhibition of Pheasants and a Partridge showing perversion 
of plumage ; The Marquess of Tavistock's exhibition of the 
eggs of the Tahiti Blue Lory ; Mr. H. F. Witherby's remarks 
on the Corsican Nuthatch. 

Films and slides were shown by — Mr. E. G. Bird, film of 
the birds of East Greenland ; Mrs. Seton Gordon, film of sea- 
birds ; Capt. C. W. R. Knight, film on Hawks and hawking ; 
Mr. H. W. Mackworth-Praed, film of Oulton Decoy ; Mr. A. H. 
Chisholm, slides on bird-life in Australia; Col. R. Meinertzhagen, 
slides on Afghanistan ; Mr. H. St. J. B. Philby, slides on 
Arabia ; Mr. B. Roberts, slides of Antarctic Birds ; Mr. H. S. 
Thompson, slides of sea-birds ; Dr. A. Landsborough-Thomson, 
slides on migration of Pintail ; Mr. B. W. Tucker, slides of 
Lapland ; Mr. G, K. Yeates, slides of bird-life of the Camargue. 



New forms were described by — Dr. D. A. Banner man, 
Mr. G. L. Bates, Mr. C. W. Benson, Monsieur J. Berlioz, 
Dr. J. M. Derscheid, Mr. M. Dunajewski, Capt. C. H. B. Grant, 
the Marquess Hachisuka, Mr. N. B. Kinnear, Mr. C. W. 
Mackworth-Praed, Mr. G. M. Mathews, Col. R. Meinertzhagen, 
Mr. R. E. Moreau, Mr. R. H. W. Pakenham, Mr. A. J. van 
Rossem, Mr. H. Whistler. 

The Club entertained as distinguished guests — Professor 
F. S. Bodenheimer, Mr. A. H. Chisholm, Professor J. B. 
Cleland, Mrs. Seton Gordon, Dr. C. E. Hellmayr, Mr. W. Meise, 
Mr. H. St. J. B. Philby, Mr. A. J. van Rossem, Mr. H. S. 
Thompson, Mr. G. K. Yeates. 


London, July 1938. 


(Founded October 5, 1892.) 


The objects of the Club, which shall be called the 
" British Ornithologists' Club," are the promotion of socia] 
intercourse between Members of the British Ornithologists' 
Union and to facilitate the publication of scientific infor- 
mation connected with ornithology. 


(As amended, October 13, 1937.) 


I. The affairs of the Club shall be managed by a Committee, 
to consist of a Chairman, who shall be elected for three years, 
at the end of which period he shall not be eligible for re-election 
for the next term ; a Vice -Chairman, who shall serve for one 
year, and who shall not be eligible for the next year ; an Editor 
of the ' Bulletin,' who shall be elected for five years, at the end 
of which period he shall not be eligible for re-election for 
the next term ; a Secretary and a Treasurer, who shall each 
be elected for a term of one year, but who shall be eligible 
for re-election. There shall be in addition four other Members, 
the senior of whom shall retire each year, and another Member 
be elected in his place ; every third year the two senior 
Members shall retire and two other Members be elected in 
their place. Officers and Members of the Committee shall 
be elected by the Members of the Club at a General Meeting, 
and the names of such Officers and Members of Committee 
nominated by the Committee for the ensuing year shall be 
circulated with the notice convening the General Meeting 
at least two weeks before the Meeting. Should any Member 
wish to propose another candidate, the nomination of such, 
signed by at least two Members, must reach the Secretary 
at least one clear week before the Annual General Meeting. 


II. Any Member desiring to make a complaint of the 
manner in which the affairs of the Club are conducted 
must communicate in writing with the Chairman, who will, 
if he deem fit, call a Committee Meeting to deal with the 

III. If the conduct of any Member shall be deemed by 
the Committee to be prejudicial to the interests of the Club, 
he may be requested by the Committee to withdraw from 
the Club. In the case of refusal, his name may be removed 
from the list of Members at a General Meeting, provided 
that, in the notice calling the Meeting, intimation of the 
proposed resolution to remove his name shall have been 
given, and that a majority of the Members voting at such 
Meeting record their votes for his removal. 


IV. Any Member of the British Ornithologists' Union 
may become a Member of the Club on payment to the. 
Treasurer of an entrance-fee of one pound and a subscription 
of one guinea for the current Session. On Membership 
of the Union ceasing, Membership of the Club also ceases. 

Any Member who has not paid his subscription before 
the last Meeting of the Session shall cease, ipso facto, to be 
a Member of the Club, but may be reinstated on payment 
of arrears. 

Any Member who has resigned less than five years ago 
may be reinstated without payment of another Entrance Fee. 

Any Member who resigns his Membership on going abroad 
may be readmitted without payment of a further Entrance 
Fee at the Committee's discretion. 

Temporary Associates. 

V. Members of the British Ornithologists' Union who are 
ordinarily resident outside the British Isles, and ornithologists 
from the British Empire overseas or from foreign countries, 
may be admitted at the discretion of the Committee as Tem- 
porary Associates of the Club for the duration of any visit to the 
British Isles not exceeding one Session. An entrance fee of 
five shillings shall be payable in respect of every such admission 


if the period exceeds three months. The privileges of 
Temporary Associates shall be limited to attendance at the 
ordinary meetings of the Club and the introduction of guests. 


VI. The Club will meet, as a rule, on the second Wednesday 
in every month, from October to June inclusive, at such 
hour and place as may be arranged by the Committee, but 
should such Wednesday happen to be Ash Wednesday, the 
Meeting will take place on the Wednesday following. At 
these Meetings papers upon ornithological subjects will 
be read, specimens exhibited and described, and discussion 

VII. A General Meeting of the Club shall be held on the 
day of the October Meeting of each Session, and the 
Treasurer shall present thereat the Balance-sheet and Report ; 
and the election of Officers and Committee, in so far as their 
election is required, shall be held at such Meeting. 

VIII. A Special General Meeting may be called at the 
instance of the Committee for any purpose which they 
deem to be of sufficient importance, or at the instance of 
not fewer than fifteen Members. Notice of not less than 
two weeks shall be given of every General and Special General 

Introduction of Visitors. 

IX. Members may introduce visitors at any ordinary 
Meeting of the Club, but the same guest shall not be eligible 
to attend on more than three occasions during the Session. 
No former Member who has been removed for non-payment 
of subscription, or for any other cause, shall be allowed to 
attend as a guest. 

' Bulletin ' of the Club. 

X. An Abstract of the Proceedings of the Club shall be 
printed as soon as possible after each Meeting, under the 
title of the ' Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club,' 
and shall be distributed gratis to every Member who has 
paid his subscription. 


Contributors are entitled to six free copies of the ' Bulletin,' 
but if they desire to exercise this privilege they must give 
notice to the Editor when their manuscript is handed in. 
Members purchasing extra copies of the ' Bulletin ' are 
entitled to a rebate of 25 per cent, on the published price, 
but not more than two copies can be sold to any Member 
unless ordered before printing. 

Descriptions of new species may be published in the 
1 Bulletin,' although such were not communicated at the 
Meeting of the Club. This shall be done at the discretion 
of the Editor and so long as the publication of the ' Bulletin ' 
is not unduly delayed thereby. 

Any person speaking at a Meeting of the Club shall be 
allowed subsequently — subject to the discretion of the Editor — 
to amplify his remarks in the ' Bulletin,' but no fresh matter 
shall be incorporated with such remarks. 

XI. No communication, the whole or any important part 
of which has already been published elsewhere, shall be 
eligible for publication in the ' Bulletin,' except at the discretion 
of the Editor ; and no communication made to the Club 
may be subsequently published elsewhere without the written 
sanction of the Editor. 

Alteration and Repeal of Rules. 

XII. Any suggested alteration or repeal of a standing rule 
shall be submitted to Members to be voted upon at a General 
Meeting convened for that purpose. 

COMMITTEE, 1937-1938. 

G. M. Mathews, Chairman. Elected 1935. 

Col. R. Sparrow, V ice-Chairman. Elected 1937. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant, Editor. Elected 1935. 

Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson, Hon. Secretary. Elected 

Major A. G. L. Sladen, Hon. Treasurer. Elected 1936. 
J. H. McNeile. Elected 1935. 
W. B. Alexander. Elected 1936. 
Miss E. P. Leach. Elected 1937. 
H. Leybourne Popham. Elected 1937. 

Officers of the British Ornithologists* Club, 
Past and Present. 

P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. 
Lord Rothschild, F.R.S. 
W. L. Sclater. 
H. F. Witherby. 
Dr. P. R. Lowe. 
Major S. S. Flower. 
D. A. Bannerman. 
G. M. Mathews. 


Lord Rothschild, F.R.S. 

W. L. Sclater. 

H. F. Witherby. 

G. M. Mathews. 

N. B. Kinnear. 

H. Whistler. 

D. Seth-Smith. 

Col. R. Sparrow. 



W. R. Ogilvie-Grant. 

D. A. Bannerman. 

D. Seth-Smith. 

Dr. P. R. Lowe. 

N. B. Kinnear. 

Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant. 




Honorary Secretaries and Treasurers. 
Howard Saunders. 1892-1899. 

W. E. de Winton. 1899-1904. 

H. F. Witherby. 1904-1914. 

Dr. P. R. Lowe. 1914-1915. 

C. G. Talbot-Ponsonby. 1915-1918. 

D. A. Bannerman. 1918-1919. 
Dr. Philip Gosse. 1919-1920. 
J. L. Bonhote. 1920-1922. 
C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 1922-1923. 
Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 1923-1929. 
C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 1929-1935. 

Honorary Secretaries. 
Dr. A. Landsboroitgh 

Thomson. 1935-1938. 

Honorary Treasurers. 
C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 1935-1936. 

Major A. G. L. Sladen. 1936- 

JUNE 1938. 

Acland, Miss C. M. ; Walwood, Banstead, Surrey. 

Alexander, H. G. ; 144 Oak Tree Lane, Selly Oak, Birming- 

Alexander, W. B., M.A. (Committee) ; Dept. of Zoology, 
University Museum, Oxford. 

Alymer, Commdr. E. A., R.N. ; Wyke Oliver, Preston, 
5 Baker, E. C. Stuart, C.I.E., O.B.E., F.L.S., H.F.A.O.U. ; 
6 Harold Road, Upper Norwood, S.E. 19. 

Bannerman, David A., M.B.E., Sc.D., F.R.S.E. (Chairman, 
1932-1935) ; British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell 
Road, S.W. 7 ; and 7 Pembroke Gardens, Kensington, 
W. 8. 

Barclay-Smith, Miss P. ; Park Lodge, Hervey Road, Black- 
heath, S.E. 3. 

Barnes, Mrs. R. G. ; Hungerdown, Seagry, Wilts. 

Barrington, Frederick J. F., M.S., F.R.C.S. ; University 
College Hospital Medical School, Gower Street, W.C. 1. 
io Bates, G. L. ; Blasford Hill, Little Waltham, Chelmsford. 

Benson, C. W. ; c/o Secretariat, Zomba, Nyasaland. 

Best, Miss M. G. S. ; 10 a Cresswell Place, S.W. 10. 

Betham, Brigadier-General R. M., CLE. ; c/o The National 
Provincial and Union Bank of England, 208-209 Piccadilly, 
W. 1. 

Blaker, George B. ; Gaveston Place, Nuthurst, Horsham, 
15 Boorman, S. ; Heath Farm, Send, Woking, Surrey. 

Booth, H. B. ; Ryhill, Ben Rhydding, Yorks. 

Boyd, A. W., M.C. ; Frandley House, near Northwich, Cheshire. 

Bradford, A. D. ; Garston House, near Watford, Herts. 

Brown, George ; Combe Manor, Hungerford, Berks. 


20 Butler, Arthur L. ; St. Leonard's Park, Horsham, 

Buxton, Anthony ; Horsey Hall, Gt. Yarmouth, Norfolk. 
Campbell, Dr. James W. ; Layer Marney Hall, Kelvedon, 

Carter, Miss B. A. ; Firtree Cottage, Chipperfield, King's 

Langley, Herts. 
Cave, Captain F. 0. ; Stoner Hill, Petersfield, Hants. 
25 Chapin, Dr. James P. ; Musee du Congo, Tervueren, Belgium ; 

and American Museum of Natural History, Central Park, 

New York City, U.S.A. 
Chapman, F. M. ; American Museum of Natural History, 

Central Park, New York City, U.S.A. 
Charles, Mrs. Edith S. ; Woodside House, Chenies, Bucks. 
Charteris, Hon. G. L. ; 24 Oxford Square, W. 2. 
Chasen, Frederick N. ; Raffles Museum, Singapore. 
30 Cheesman, Major R. E., O.B.E. ; Tilsden, Cranbrook, Kent. 
Clarke, Brig. -General Goland van Holt, C.M.G., D.S.O. ; 

Wiston Park, Steyning, Sussex. 
Clarke, John P. Stephenson ; Broadhurst Manor, Horsted 

Keynes, Sussex. 
Clarke, Col. Stephenson Robert, C.B. ; Borde Hill, Cuck- 

fleld, Sussex. 
Cleave, Henry P. 0. ; Mansfield House, Kendrick Road, 

35 Cochrane, Captain Henry L., R.N. (retd.) ; Court Place, 

West Monkton, Taunton, Somerset. 
Conover, H. B. ; 6 Scott Street, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. 
Cunningham, Josias ; Drinagh, Kensington Road, Knock, 

Curtis, Frederick, F.R.C.S. ; Alton House, Redhill, Surrey. 
Deane, Robert H. ; Anne Boleyn Cottage, Carlton Road, 

Seaford, Sussex. 
40 Delacour, Jean ; Chateau de Geres, Geres, Seine -Inferieure, 

Dewhurst, Major F. W., Royal Marine Barracks, Plymouth. 
Dobie, William Henry, M.R.C.S. ; 32 St. Martin's Fields, 



Duncan, Arthur Bryce ; Gilchristlands, Closeburn, Dum- 
Ellis, Ralph, F.L.S. ; 2420 Ridge Road, Berkeley, California, 

45 Ezra, A., O.B.E. ; Foxwarren Park, Cobham, Surrey. 

Ferrier, Miss Judith M. ; Hemsby Hall, Hemsby, Norfolk. 
Fisher, James ; Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, N.W. 8. 
Fisher, Kenneth ; School House, Oundle, Northamptonshire. 
Flower, Major S. S. (Chairman, 1930-1932) ; 27 Park Road, 

Tring, Herts. 
50 Foulkes-Roberts, Captain P. R. ; Westwood, Goring-on- 

Thames, Oxon. 
Gilbert, H. A. ; Bishopstone, near Hereford. 
Glegg, W. E. ; 2 Burlington House, King's Road, Richmond, 

Glenister, A. G. ; The Barn House, East Blatchington, 

Seaford, Sussex. 
Godman, Miss Eva ; South Lodge, Horsham, Sussex. 
55 Gosnell, H. T. ; The Boreen, Headley Down, Bordon, Hants. 
Grant, Captain C. H. B. (Editor of the ' Bulletin ') ; 58 a Ennis- 

more Gardens, S.W. 7. 
Gyldenstolpe, Count Nils ; Royal (Natural History) 

Museum, Stockholm, Sweden. 
Hachisuka, The Marquess ; Mitashiba, Tokyo, Japan. 
Haigh, George Henry Caton ; Grainsby Hall, Great 

Grimsby, Lincolnshire. 
60 Hale, Rev. James R., M.A. ; Yalding Vicarage, Maidstone, 

Hamerton, Colonel A. E. ; 1 Park Village West, Regent's 

Park, N.W. 1. 
Harrison, Bernard Guy ; 45 St. Martin's Lane, W.C. 2. 
Harrison, James M., D.S.C., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. ; Bowerwood 

House, St. Botolph's Road, Sevenoaks, Kent. 
Heath, R. E. ; 2 Pembroke Court, Edwardes Square, W. 8. 
65 Hett, Geoffrey Seccombe, M.B., F.R.C.S. ; 86 Brook 

Street, Grosvenor Square, W. 1. 
Hodgkin, Mrs. T. Edward ; Old Ridley, Stocksfield, North- 


Hollom, P. A. D. ; Rolverden, Hook Heath, Woking, 

Hopkinson, Emilius, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.B. ; Wynstay, 

Balcombe, Sussex. 
Hutson, Lieut-Col. H. P. W., R.E. ; Chatham House, Rome 

Gardens, Abassia, Cairo, Egypt. 
70 Inglis, C. McFarlane ; Natural History Museum, Darjiling, 

Ingram, Capt. Collingwood ; The Grange, Benenden, 

Cranbrook, Kent. 
Jabouille, Pierre ; Chateau de Cleres, Cleres, Seine- 

Inferieure, France. 
Jordan, Dr. Karl ; Zoological Museum, Tring, Herts. 
Jourdain, Rev. F. C. R., M.A., H.F.A.O.U., H.M.S.O. de 

France ; Whitekirk, 4 Belle Vue Road, Southbourne, 

75 Joy, Norman H., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. ; Dungeness, Kent. 
Kinnear, Norman B. ; British Museum (Natural History), 

Cromwell Road, S.W. 7. 
Kloss, C. Boden ; Royal Societies Club, St. James's Street, 

S.W. 1. 
Kuroda, Dr. Nagamichi ; Fukuyoshi Cho, Akasaka, Tokyo, 

Leach, Miss E. P. (Committee) ; 17 Hereford Square, S.W. 7. 
80 Lewis, John Spedan ; Leckford Abbess, Stockbridge, Hants. 
Lloyd, Bertram ; 4 Tavistock Square, W.C. 1. 
Longfield, Miss Cynthia ; 20 Pont Street, S.W. 1. 
Low, George Carmichael, M.D., CM., F.R.C.P. ; 86 Brook 

Street, Grosvenor Square, W. 1. 
Lowe, P. R., O.B.E., M.B., B.C. (Chairman, 1927-1930) ; 

British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, 

S.W. 7. 
85 Lucas, Nathaniel S., M.B. ; Bramblehurst, East Grinstead, 

Lynes, Rear-Admiral Hubert, R.N., C.B., C.M.G. ; 169 

Cranmer Court, Chelsea, S.W. 3. 
Macdonald, J. D., B.Sc. ; British Museum (Natural History), 

Cromwell Road, S.W. 7. 


Mackenzie, John M. D., B.A., C.M.Z.S. ; Sidlaw Fur Farm, 

Tullach Ard, Balbeggie, Perthshire. 
McKittrick, T. H. ; Coombe Place, East Grinstead, Sussex. 
90 Mackworth-Praed, C. W. ; 51 Onslow Gardens, S.W. 7. 
Macmillan, Captain W. E. F. ; 42 Onslow Square, S.W. 7. 
McNeile, J. H. (Committee) ; Nonsuch, Bromham, Chip- 
penham, Wilts. 
Macpherson, D. W. K. ; P.O., Lilongwe, Nyasaland. 
Magrath, Lieut. -Colonel H. A. F. ; 19 a Cygnet House, 

King's Road, S.W. 3. 
95 Mansfield, The Right Hon. the Earl of; Scone Palace, 

Manson-Bahr, P. H., D.S.O., M.D., F.R.C.P. ; 149 Harley 

Street, W. 1. 
Mathews, G. M., F.R.S.E., H.F.A.O.U. (Chairman) ; Headway, 

St. Cross, Winchester, Hants. 
Mavrogordato, J. G. ; Mariners, Westerham, Kent. 
May, W. Norman, M.D. ; The White House, Sonning, Berks. 
IOO Mayaud, Noel ; Le Lys, par le Puy-Notre-Dame, Maine-et- 

Loire, France. 
Meinertzhagen, Colonel R., D.S.O. ; 17 Kensington Park 

Gardens, W. 8. 
Micholls, Mrs. Dorothy ; Silver Birches, Wentworth, 

Virginia Water, Surrey. 
Momiyama, Toku Taro ; 1146 Sasazka, Yoyohata-mati, 

Tokyo, Japan. 
Munn, P. W. ; Puerto Alcudia, Majorca, Balearic Isles, Spain. 
105 Mitrton, Mrs. C. D. ; Cranbrook Lodge, Cranbrook, Kent. 
Musselwhite, D. W. ; 59 Mayford Road, Wandsworth 

Common, S.W. 12. 
Naumburg, Mrs. W. W. ; 121 East 64th Street, New York 

City, U.S.A. 
Newman, T. H. ; Verulam, 46 Forty Avenue, Wembley Park, 

Nicholson, E. M. ; 13 Upper Cheyne Row, S.W. 3. 
no Norris, C. A. ; Grassholme, Stratford-on-Avon, Warwick- 
North, M. E. W. ; c/o Secretariat, Nairobi, Kenya. 
Oldham, Chas. ; Oxfield, Berkhamsted, Herts. 


Osmaston, Bertram Beresford ; 10 Collingwood Terrace, 

Westgate-on-Sea, Kent. 
Pakenham, R. H. W. ; Kingsley, Hurtis Hill, Crowborough, 

115 Paulson, C. W. G. ; 10 King's Bench Walk, Temple, 

E.C. 4. 
Peall, Mrs. Oscar ; Oare, Marlborough, Wilts. 
Pease, H. J. R. ; Medmenham, Marlow, Bucks. 
Phillips, A. S. ; 56 Acacia Road, N.W. 5. 
Pitman, Capt. C. R. S., D.S.O., M.C. ; c/o Grindlay & Co., 

54 Parliament Street, S.W. 1. 
120 Popham, Hugh Leyborne, M.A. ; Hunstrete House, Pensford, 

Priestley, Mrs. Mary ; 3 The Grove, Highgate Village, 

N. 6. 
Rhodes, Miss G. M. ; Hildersham Hall, Cambridge. 
Rickett, C. B. ; 27 Kendrick Road, Reading, Berks. 
Riviere, B. B., F.R.C.S. ; The Old Hall, Woodbastwick, 

125 Sandeman, R. G. C. C. ; Dan-y-parc, Crickhowell, Brecon. 
Schauensee, R. M. de ; Devon, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 
Schouteden, Dr. H. ; Musee du Congo, Tervueren, Belgium. 
Sclater, William Lutley, M.A. (Chairman, 1918-1924) ; 

10 Sloane Court, S.W. 3. 
Seth-Smith, David ; Curator's House, Zoological Gardens, 

Regent's Park, N.W. 8. 
130 Sherriff, Albert ; 8 Ranulf Road, Hampstead, N.W. 2. 
Shipton, Wm., M.D. ; 2 The Square, Buxton, Derbyshire. 
Simonds, Major Maurice H. ; Fines Baylewick, Binfield, 

Sladen, Major A. G. Lambart, M.C. (Treasurer) ; Horsenden 

Manor, Princes Risborough, Bucks ; and 39 St. James's 

Street, S.W. 1, 
Sparrow, Col. R., C.M.G., D.S.O. (V ice-Chairman) ; The Lodge, 

Colne Engaine, Earls Colne, Essex. 
135 Stares, J. W. C. ; Portchester, Hants. 

Steuart, Mrs. Ronald ; The Old Rectory, North Fambridge, 

Chelmsford, Essex. 


Stevens, Herbert ; Clovelly, Beaconsfield Road, Tring, 

Stevens, Noel ; Walcot Hall, Lydbury North, Salop. 
Stonor, C. R. ; British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell 

Road, S.W. 7. 
140 Taka-Tsukasa, Prince Nobusuke ; 1732 Sanchome, Kami- 

meguro, Meguro-Ku, Tokyo, Japan. 
Taylor, Miss D. L. ; Bellefields, Englefield Green, Surrey. 
Tavistock, The Most Hon. the Marquess of ; Barrington 

House, Hay ward's Heath, Sussex. 
Thomson, A. Landsborough, C.B., O.B.E., D.Sc, F.R.S.E. 

{Secretary) ; 16 Tregunter Road, S.W. 10. 
Ticehurst, Claud B., M.A., M.R.C.S. ; Saxon House, 

Appledore, Kent. 
145 Ticehurst, N. F., O.B.E., M.B., F.R.C.S. ; 24 Pevensey 

Road, St. Leonards-on-Sea, Sussex. 
Tucker, B. W., B.A. ; 9 Marston Ferry Road, Oxford. 
Turner, Miss E. L. ; The Half Way Cottage, 13 Storey's 

Way, Cambridge. 
Turtle, Lancelot J. ; 17-21 Castle Place, Belfast. 
Urquhart, Capt. Alastair, D.S.O. ; Latimer Cottage, 

Latimer, Chesham, Bucks. 
150 van Someren, Dr. V. G. L. ; East Africa and Uganda Natural 

History Society, Coryndon Memorial Museum, Nairobi, 

Kenya Colony, East Africa. 
Vernay, A. S. ; 51 Berkeley Square, W. 1. 
Vincent, J. ; c/o Standard Bank of South Africa, Ltd., Com- 
missioner Street, Johannesburg, Transvaal, South Africa. 
Wade, Major G. A., M.C. ; St. Quintin, Sandy Lane, Newcastle- 

under-Lyme, Staffs. 
Wait, W. E., C.M.G., C.F.A.O.U. ; Applegarth, Aldbury, 

near Tring, Herts. 
155 Waite, Herbert William ; c/o Messrs. Grindlay & Co., Ltd., 

Bombay, India. 
Wallis, H. M. ; 110 Kendrick Road, Reading, Berks. 
Ware, R. ; Leafwood, Frant, Tunbridge Wells, Kent. 
Watt, Mrs. H. W. Boyd ; 90 Parliament Hill Mansions, 

Lissenden Gardens, N.W. 5, 
vol. lvtii. b 


Whistler, Hugh, F.L.S. ; Caldbec House, Battle, Sussex. 
160 White, Charles M. N. ; Park-View, Garstang Road, 

Broughton, near Preston, Lanes. 
White, S. J. ; 17 Philpot Lane, E.C. 3. 
Whitley, H. ; Primley, Paignton, S. Devon. 
Willoughby-Ellis, H. ; Friary Hill, Weybridge, Surrey. 
Wishart, E. E. ; Marsh Farm, Binsted, Arundel, Sussex. 
165 Witherby, Harry F., M.B.E. {Chairman, 1924-1927) ; 

Gracious Pond Farm, Chobham, near Woking, Surrey. 
Witherinton, G. ; Sumner Plat, Hay ward's Heath, Sussex. 
Wood, Casey A., M.D. ; c/o The Library of Ornithology, 

McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 
Workman, William Hughes ; Lismore, Windsor Avenue, 

Worms, Charles de ; Milton Park, Egham, Surrey. 

Total number of Members .... 169 

[Members are specially requested to keep the Hon. Secretary 
informed of any changes in their addresses, and those 
residing abroad should give early notification of coming home 
on leave.] 



Accounts, Statement of 3 

Alexander, W. B., and H. N. Southern. 

Remarks on the distribution of the bridled form of the 
Common Guillemot (Uria aalge) 54-55 

Annual General Meeting 2 

Bannerman, Dr. D. A. 

Description of a new race of the Brown-rumped Swallow 
(Pseudohirundo griseopyga liberise) from Liberia 8-9 

Description of a new race of the South African Sand-Martin 
(Eipariu paludicola newtoni) from the Cameroon Highlands. 31-32 

Description of a new race of the Grey Cuckoo -Shrike 
(Coracina cassia okuensis) from Cameroons 76 

Barclay-Smith, Miss Phyllis. 

Trip to Poland 8 

Remarks on Mr. Jourdain's account on the White Stork 
experiment 56-59 

Bates, G. L. 

Description of a new race of Wheat ear ((Enanthe luyubris 
boscaweni) from Hadhramaut 32 

Benson, C. W. 

Description of two new races, Anomalospizu imberbis 
nyasse and Othyphantes stuhlmanni nyikse from Nyasaland. . 112-113 


Berlioz, Monsieur J. 

Description of a new race of Humming- bird, Oreonympfw, 
nobilis albolimbata from Peru 44-46 

Description of a new species, Pithy s castanea from Ecuador. 90-9 1 

Birckhead, H. 

Proposed a new name, Urocissa erythrorhyncha alticila, for 
Urocissa erythrorhyncha cserulea 71-72 

Bird, E. G. 

Exhibition of a film of birds in East Greenland 81 

Chairman, The. 

Annual Address 26-29 

Chisholm, A. H. 

A brief talk on bird-life in Australia 123-124 

Cleland, Professor J. B. 

Bird-life of Australia 88-90 

Committee for 1937-1938 2 

Congress, IXth International Ornithological. 

Provisional Programme 21-23 

Preparations announced by the Secretary 71 

Delacour, J. 

An accoimt of his cruise with Lord Moyne 70-71 

Derscheid, Dr. J. M. 

Description of a new species of Teal (Amazonetta vittata) 
from South America, together with a note on the systematic 
position of Amazonetta and Calonetta 59-63 

Duna.tewski, Mr. 

Description of a new Flycatcher (Muscicapa striata 
berliozi) from Algeria 148 

Gordon, Mrs. Seton. 

Exhibition of a film of sea-birds 81 

Gilbert, H. A. (See Mackworth-Praed, H. W.) 


Gkant, Capt. C. H. B., and C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 

1. On the status of Caprimulgus clarus and the races of 

Scotomis climacurus in Eastern Africa 18-20 

2. On Caprimulgus nauta 20-21 

3. On the type-locality of Micropus affmis abessynicus . . 21 

1. On Caprimulgus europseus and its races in Eastern 

Africa , 32-34 

2. On some necessary changes in the status of some 

eastern African Nightjars 34-35 

1. On the type -locality of Cypselus barbatus (Micropus 

apus barbatus) 41) 

2. On some East African Swifts 49-51 

Descriptions of two new races, Colius striatus rhodesise 
from Southern Rhodesia, and Lybius leucocephalus lynes'i 
from Iringa, Tanganyika Territory 65- 66 

1. On the distribution of Colius leucocephalus leuco- 

cephalus and Colius leucocephalus turneri 66 

2. On the status of Lybius tsanse 67 

3. On the type-locality of Lybius guifsobalito 67 

A note on the status of Viridibucco simplex and Viridi- 
bucco leucomystax 77-78 

1. On the status of Barbatula kandti 82 

2. On the status of Barbatula leucolaima urungensis 82-83 

3. On the status of Lybius guifsobalito ugandee 83 

4. On the status of Lybius melanopterus didymus 83-84 

5. On the status of Buccanodon belcheri 84 

6. The correct type-locality of Trachyphonus erythro- 

cephalus shelleyi 84 

1. On the races of Lybius torquatus, and the status of 

Lybius zombse 104-106 

2. On the status of the races of Trachyphonus vaillantii. . 106-107 

3. On the status of Trachyphonus margaritatus somalicus 

and Trachyphonus margaritatus kingi 107 

A correction, (antea, p. 83.) 107 

1. On the status of Pogoniulus bilineatus conciliator 116 

2. On the races of Trachyphonus erythrocephalus 116-117 


Grant, Capt. C. H. B., and C. W. Mackworth-Praed {cont.). 

3. On the exact type -locality of Indicator variegatus and 

the status of Indicator variegatus jubaensis 118 

4. On the exact type-locality of Indicator minor minor. . . 118 

5. On the status of Indicator minor teitensis 118-119 

1. On the status of Buccanodon leucotis kenyee 140 

2. On the status of A. Barbatula pusillus lollesheid and 

B. Pogoniulus pusillus eupterus 140-141 

3. On the status of Indicator exilis erlangeri 141 

4. On the status of A. Melignothes pachyrhynchus, 

B. Indicator pygmseus, C. Melignothes meliphilus, 

D. Indicator narokensis, and E. Indicator appelator . 141-145 

5. On the status of Prodotiscus insignis reichenowi 145-146 

6. On the status of Prodotiscus regulus peasei 146 

7. On the type-locality of Dendromus scriptoricauda .... 146-147 

Hachisuka, The Marquess. 

A note on the famous painting of Edwards's Dodo .... 16-18 

Description of a new Kaleege Pheasant, Gennxus moffttti, 
imported from Calcutta 91-93 

Hellmayr, Dr. 

Birds in and around Vienna 8 

Jourdain, Rev. F. C. R. 

Remarks on Whitehead's Nuthatch 6-7 

Remarks on the White Stork (Ciconia c. ciconia), with 
special reference to the recent experiments, its migration 
and life-history 38-44 

Kinnear, N. B. 

Description of a new race of Babbler (Babax lanceolatus 
Uunsdeni) from S.E. Tibet 76-77 

A note on the occurrence of the Cape Bittern (Botaurus 
stellaris capensis) in Northern Rhodesia 77 

Proposed a new name, Stachyris guttata tonkinensis, for 
Thringorhina guttata diluta 82 

Description of a new species Sheppardia bensoni from 
Nyasaland 138-139 


Knight, Capt. C. W. R. 

Exhibition of a film on Hawks and Hawking 81 

Literature, List of (referred to at Annual Address) 28-29 

Low, Dr. G. Carmichael. 

Exhibition of, and remarks on, a Reeve (Philomachus 
pugnax) 7 

Note on the Red-legged Sandpiper of Bewick 8 

Showed a series of Pheasants and a Partridge showing 
perversion of plumage 86-88 

Mackworth-Praed, C. W. (See under Grant, Capt. C. H. B.) 

Mackworth-Praed, H. W. 

Exhibition of a film, showing various species of Ducks 
at Orielton, Pembrokeshire, and the working of the decoy 
there 81 

Manson-Bahr, Dr. P. H. 

Exhibition of, and remarks on, the tarsus of a Snipe ... 70 

Mathews, G. M. 

Notes on the genus Fregetta Bonaparte, 1 855, together with 
notes on some overloooked generic names . , 11-13 

Note on the name of the British Long-tailed Tit, Mgitlialus 
caudatus rosaceus, nom. nov 44 

Description of a new race of Shallow-forktailed Petrel 
(Cymochorea castro kumagai) from Hondo, Japan 63-64 

Notes on Procellaria oceanica, Fregettornis grallaria, and 
Nesofregetta amphitrite 1)6-100 

Meeting, Annual General 2 

Meeting, Special General 1 

Meinertzhagen, Col. R. 

Descriptions of one new species, Montifringilla iheresx, 
from Afghanistan, and one new subspecies, Sylvia nana 
theresee from Sind 10 

Exhibition of slides, and a talk on his trip to Afghanistan. 86 

Metnertzhagen, Col. R. (cont.). 

Descriptions of four new races, Mgypius monachus danieli 
from Mongolia, Parus rufonuchalis blanchardi and Erythrina 
synoica salimalii from Afghanistan, and Sitta neumayer 
subcderuleus from Afghan Turkestan 94-96 

Moreau, R. E. 

Description of a new race of Bar- throated Warbler (Apalis 
murina fuscigularis) from Kenya Colony 48-49 

Description of a new race, Erythropygia barbata greenwayi, 
from Mafia Island, Tanganyika Territory 64-65 

Remarkable example of tenacity of the life of the Yellow - 
vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus tricolor micrus) 113-114 

Description of a new species, Artisornis winifredse, from 
Tanganyika Territory 139 

Pakenham, R. H. W. 

Notes on Astur tachiro, Tchitrea perspicillata, Tchitrea 
viridis, Calamoecetor leptorhyncha, and Mandingoa nitidula. . 100-104 

Description of a new race of the East African Red-crested 
Lourie (Turacus fischeri zanzibaricus) from Zanzibar Island. 111-112 

Philby, H. St. J. B. 

Interesting talk on Arabia, and showed slides 29-31 

Roberts, Brian. 

Exhibition of slides of Antarctic birds 81 

Rules, Addition and Renumber 1 

Salomonsen, Dr. Finn. 

Notes on the Philippine Paradise Flycatchers, with one 
proposed new name, Terpsiphone unirufa, nom. nov 13-16 

Seth-Smith, D. 

Remarks on two albino Willow-Warblers (Phylloscopus 
trochilus) observed at Whipsnade Park 7 

Southern, H. N., and W. B. Alexander. 

Remarks on the distribution of the bridled form of the 
Common Guillemot (Uria aalge) 54-55 


Tavistock, The Marquess. 

Exhibition of, and remarks on, an egg of the Tahiti Blue 
Lory 55-56 

Thompson, Harry S. 

Exhibition of slides of sea-birds 81 

Thomson, Dr. A. Landsborough. 

Remarks, illustrated by lantern-slides of maps, on the 
migration of the Pintail (Anas acuta) 109-111 

Tucker, B. W. 

An account of a trip to Finnish and Norwegian Lapland. . 121-123 

Van Bossem, A. J. 

Descriptions of twenty-one new races of Fringillidse and 
Icteridae from Mexico and Guatemala 124-138 

Whistler, H. 

Description of a new race, Perdicula argoondah meinertz- 
hageni, from Rajputana 9 

White, C. M. N. 

Note on some Solomon Islands birds 46-48 

A note on the races of Coracina novsehollandise 72-75 

Sent the two following notes :■ — - 

1. The races of Glossopsitta concinna 114 

2. The races of Geopelia striata 115 


Remarks on birds observed in Corsica in June, 1937 4-6 

Exhibition of, and remarks on, a Subalpine Warbler 
(Sylvia cantillans cantillans) from Co. Antrim 7 

Yeates, G. K. 

Exhibition of slides illustrating the bird-life of the 
Carmargue 81 


3 in-pt k 







Special General Meeting. 

Chairman : Mr. D. Seth-Smith. 

A Special General Meeting was held at the Rembrandt 
Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, at 6.15 p.m. on Wednesday, 
October 13, 1937, in accordance with notice which had been 

An addition to the Rules was proposed by the Committee. 
This was approved in principle, and after verbal amendment 
was then adopted as follows : — 

" Temporary Associates. 

" V. Members of the British Ornithologists' Union who 
are ordinarily resident outside the British Isles, and 
ornithologists from the British Empire overseas or from 
foreign countries, may be admitted at the discretion of 
the Committee as Temporary Associates of the Club for 
the duration of any visit to the British Isles not exceeding 
one session. An entrance fee of five shillings shall be 
payable in respect of every such admission if the period 
exceeds three months. The privileges of Temporary 
Associates shall be limited to attendance at the ordinary 
meetings of the Club and the introduction of guests." 

It was also agreed that the existing Rules V.-XI. should be 
re-numbered as VI.-XII. 

[November 5, 1937.] 


Vol. lviii.] 2 [1937. 

Annual General Meeting. 
Chairman : Mr. D. Seth-Smith. 

This was held immediately after the Special General Meeting. 
The minutes of the Annual General Meeting held on October 14, 
1936, were confirmed. 

Dr. A. Landsborotjgh Thomson then submitted his Report 
as Secretary. He said that the number of members remained 
the same, at 170. Six members had died : — Dr. L. Bureau, 
Mr. P. F. Bunyard, Sir Percy Cox, Lord Rothschild, Mr. C. G. 
Talbot Ponsonby, and Mr. J. I. S. Whitaker. Four members 
had resigned, and one had been removed from the list under 
Rule IV. Eleven new members had joined the Club. The 
usual meetings had been held : the total attendances were 
548 (373 members, 175 others), or practically the same as in 
the previous year. The report was approved. 

Major A. G. Lamb art Sladen submitted his Report as 
Treasurer. The Financial Statement had been circulated, 
and called for no special comment: the balance in hand was 
greater by some £28 than at the beginning of the year. The 
report was approved. 

Colonel R. Sparrow was elected Vice-Chairman in place of 
Mr. D. Seth-Smith, whose period of office terminated. 

Dr. A. L. Thomson was re-elected Hon. Secretary. 

Major A. G. L. Sladen was re-elected Hon. Treasurer. 

Miss E. P. Leach and Mr. H. L. Popham were elected 
members of the Committee in place of Colonel A. E. Hamerton, 
whose period of office terminated, and of Mr. C. W. Mackworth- 
Praed, who resigned. 

Committee, 1937-1938. 

Mr. Gregory M. Mathews, Chairman (elected 1935). 
Colonel R. Sparrow, Vice-Chairman (elected 1937). 
Captain Claude H. B. Grant, Editor (elected 1935). 
Dr. A. Landsborotjgh Thomson, Hon. Secretary (elected 

Major A. G. Lambart Sladen, Hon. Treasurer (elected 1936). 
Mr. J. H. McNeile (elected 1935). 
Mr. W. B. Alexander (elected 1936). 
Miss E. P. Leach (elected 1937). 
Mr. H, Leyborne Popham (elected 1937). 


[Vol. lviii. 


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Vol. lviii.] 4 [1937. 

Ordinary Meeting. 

The four-hundred-and-second Ordinary Meeting of the 
Club was also held at the Rembrandt Hotel, on Wednesday, 
October 13, 1937. 

Chairman : Colonel R. Sparrow. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; W. B. Alexander ; 
Dr. D. A. Bannerman ; Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; F. J. F. 
Barrington ; Miss M. G. S. Best ; Brig. -Gen. R. M. Betham ; 
Miss B. A. Carter ; Captain F. 0. Cave ; Hon. G. L. 
Charteris ; Miss J. M. Ferrier ; J. Fisher ; Capt. C. H. B. 
Grant (Editor) ; Col. A. E. Hamerton ; B. Guy Harrison ; 
Mrs. C. Hodgkin ; P. A. D. Hollom ; E. Hopkinson ; 
Dr. K. Jordan ; Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain ; Miss E. P. 
Leach ; Dr. G. Carmichael Low ; Rear- Admiral H. Lynes ; 
T. H. McKittrick, Jr. ; C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; 
J. H. McNeile ; Dr. P. H. Manson-Bahr ; A. J. Marshall ; 
Dr. W. N. May ; Col. R. Meinertzhagen ; E. M. Nicholson ; 
C. Oldham ; B. B. Osmaston ; H. Leyborne Popham ; 
Dr. B. B. Riviere ; W. L. Sclater ; D. Seth-Smith ; 
Major M. H. Simonds ; C. R. Stonor ; Miss D. L. Taylor ; 
Dr. A. Landsborottgh Thomson (Hon. Sec.) ; B. W. Tucker ; 
Miss E. L. Turner ; Mrs. H. W. Boyd Watt ; W. E. Wait ; 
H. F. Witherby ; C. G. M. de Worms. 

Quest of the Club : — Dr. C. E. Hellmayr. 

Guests : — Mrs. R. M. Betham ; Miss Lynes ; Mrs. Mack 
worth-Praed ; Mrs. P. Martin ; P. M. Meeson ; W. H 
Perrett ; Mrs. Sclater ; Miss B. N. Solly. 

Members, 48 ; Guests, 8 ; Guest of the Club, 1. 

Mr. H. F. Witherby made some remarks about birds 
he and Mrs. Witherby had observed in Corsica in June 1937. 
Mr. Witherby exhibited a juvenile specimen of the Corsican 
Nuthatch (Sitta canadensis whiteheadi) which he had obtained, 
and made the following remarks : — 

We had searched both at Vizzavona and Evisa for the 
Corsican or Whitehead's Nuthatch, but had failed to find it 

1937.] 5 [Vol. lviii. 

until our last day in the mountains at Evisa. On this day 
we visited a hillside with smallish pines here and there, and 
my wife saw a Nuthatch acting like a Tit in the outer twigs 
of the top of one of the trees. We sat down to watch it and 
soon saw its mate. They were evidently collecting food 
for young, and we noticed that they were as often hopping 
about the small twigs of a pine like a Tit or sitting on a small 
bough, as they were climbing in a normal Nuthatch manner. 
This habit I afterwards found had been noted by others. 
The birds look small and pale, and the hen when flying at a little 
distance appears much like a Blue Tit. The cock is easily 
distinguished by his little black " beret." They collected 
food both from trunks and twigs of pines, and kept feeding 
the young which were in a hole in a very rotten pine stump 
snapped off at about 12 feet from the ground. While we 
were standing at the foot of the stump one of the old birds 
came to feed the young, and clung within a few feet of us, 
uttering a soft scolding note. This was the only sound we 
heard the birds make during our watch of several hours. 
At other times of year they appear to be noisy, and this 
silence was perhaps one reason why we had had such difficulty 
in finding the bird. The nesting-hole was not more than 9 feet 
from the ground, but the tree, which was about 6 inches in 
diameter, was so rotten that a slight push would have sent 
it over down the slope. We built up a platform of rocks 
behind it, and standing on them I was able to reach the nesting- 
hole and extract one of the young ones. Immediately the 
rest flew out and scattered, for they were full-grown. 

The entrance -hole was small and round and the nest was 
about 4 inches down. The cavity was very roughly picked 
out, with a very uneven jagged surface, with apparently no 
attempt at shaping. 

The young one, which I exhibit with adults, which 
Mr. Kinnear has kindly brought from the Museum collection, 
is exactly like an adult male, except that the black of the 
crown is not quite so dense and glossy and the upper parts 
and underparts are very slightly paler and the under tail- 
coverts are rather more buff than in the adult. This young 
one I carefully sexed as a male. 

Vol. lviii.] 6 [1937. 

The only description of a juvenile Sitta c. whiteheadi I am 
aware of is that by Schiebel, who described a bird which he 
had sexed, evidently wrongly as a male, as being like the 
adult female. There is no doubt that Schiebel's bird was 
really a female and that the juvenile male and female are 
differentiated as in the adults. This, indeed, agrees with 
descriptions of the juveniles of Sitta c. canadensis. 

I also exhibit from the Museum, specimens of adults of 
two allied forms, Sitta c. canadensis (N. America) and Sitta 
c. villosa (N. China). You will note that the latter is very 
near S. c. whiteheadi, being only a little moie buff on the 
underparts, while S. c. canadensis is considerably more 
rufous -buff on the underparts. 

I have also brought some specimens of Kriiper's Nuthatch 
(Sitta kriiperi) from Asia Minor, as that bird has recently 
been treated as a subspecies of Sitta canadensis. It is obviously 
nearly allied, but has such distinct differences that in my 
view it should be kept as a separate species. 

We were certainly very fortunate in being able to get this 
young Whitehead's Nuthatch, as Mr. Jourdain informs me that 
he has never heard of a nest so low down. I certainly had 
no intention of emulating Mr. Jourdain 's feats of some twenty- 
five years ago, when he climbed to nests in high dead pines in 
a dangerously rotten state (Ibis, 1911, pp. 440-445). If the 
nest had been at a normal height I should probably not have 
got this young bird, which I am presenting to the Museum. 

The Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain made the following remarks : — 
Whitehead's Nuthatch was first discovered by John White- 
head on June 12, 1883. He only got a single specimen, and 
returned in 1884, when he succeeded in getting a small series 
of birds and found nine nests, but did not get to all of these, 
probably five or six only being taken. Of these one is in the 
British Museum, one at Tring, one in Germany, and one or 
more broken up and dispersed. 

From 1884 to 1908 no nests were found and only five 
specimens obtained, but in 1908 and 1909 I took five nests 
with eggs and found others with young. No other nests have, 
been found since that date till this year, when Mr. Witherby 

1937.] 7 [Vol. lvriii. 

found one with young and I saw three occupied nesting- sites, 
but did not attempt to reach them. It is remarkable that 
the nest and eggs or young have only been found by three 
collectors during the half century which has elapsed since its 
discovery. Full details of its nesting will be found in ' The 
Ibis,' 1885 and 1911. 

Dr. G. Carmichael Low exhibited a Reeve, Philomachus 
pugnax, which had been sent to him by Mr. J. G. Marwick of 
Stromness, Orkney, for identification. The bird had been found 
at Voy, near Stromness, on September 25, 1937, with the outer 
part of its right wing torn completely off, having evidently 
hit a telegraph- or telephone -wire. It was so badly damaged 
that it had to be destroyed. The injury to the wing was 
severe, the fracture and tear taking place at the junction 
of the humerus with the radius and ulna, and it is interesting 
that with such an injury the bird should have survived and 
not died of haemorrhage or shock. 

Mr. H. F. Witherby exhibited, on behalf of Mr. J. A. 
Sidney Stendall, of the Belfast Museum, a male example of the 
Subalpine Warbler (Sylvia cantillans cantillans) which had been 
found dead at the Maidens Lighthouse off Co. Antrim on 
June 13, 1937. Mr. Witherby remarked that the occurrence 
had already been recorded (Brit. Birds, 1937 (Sept.), p. 121, 
and Irish Nat. Journal, 1937, p. 279), but that he had obtained 
the editor's permission (according to rule) to exhibit the bird, 
as it was thought it would interest the members. 

Mr. Witherby stated that this was the second recorded 
occurrence of the bird in Ireland, while four had been 
recorded for Scotland. All these birds had appeared in 
May and June except for the first Irish specimen in September 

Mr. David Seth- Smith reported having seen two albino 
Willow- Warblers (Phylloscopus trochilus) at Whipsnade Park, 
Bedfordshire, on July 25, 1937. A keeper told him that he 
had seen three a few days before, evidently just having left 
the nest, as a parent bird was feeding them. They were quite 
fearless, and one could be observed at very close quarters as 

Vol. lviii.] 8 [1937. 

it collected insects from the branches of Scots pine and larch. 
It was white with a yellowish tinge, especially on the upper 
wing- coverts. The eyes were deep pink and the legs and 
feet yellow. 

Miss Phyllis Barclay-Smith gave a short account of her 
trip to Poland. 

Dr. Hellmayr gave a short address on the birds in and 
around Vienna. 

Dr. G. Carmichael Low sent the following note on the 
Red-legged Sandpiper of Bewick : — 

Montagu (Supplement to the ' Ornithological Dictionary,' 
1813) referred to and gave a description of the Red-legged 
Sandpiper of Bewick (' History of British Birds,' ii. 1804, 
p. 113), and though not naming it in the text did so in the 
catalogue at the end of the volume as Tringa bewickii. 

Reference to Bewick's plate and figures of feathers at tail- 
piece, as Mr. Mathews has already pointed out, clearly show 
that the bird is not a Redshank. It is definitely a Reeve in 
summer plumage. The colour of the legs is wrong, but may 
have been described from a mounted specimen in which the 
legs had been painted red. The name Tringa erythropus used 
by Bewick cannot stand, being preoccupied by Scolopax ery- 
thropus (Pallas, Vroeg's Catalogue, 1764, p. 6) for the Spotted 

Tringa bewickii Montagu must therefore become a synonym 
of Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus 1 ) . 

Dr. David A. Bannerman sent the description of a new 
race of the Brown-rumped Swallow, for which he proposed the 

Pseudohirundo griseopyga liberie, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Adult male and female. Differs from 
P. g. griseopyga in its much smaller size and in having a clear 
brown (not grey or greyish-brown) rump. 

1937.] 9 [Vol. lviii. 

From the equally small Adamawan race, P. g. gertrudis, it 
may be distinguished by the clear brown rump. 

From the Gabon race, P. g. melbina, with which it has 
usually been allied, by the browner, less sooty rump, and the 
paler head, which is not glossed with blue on the crown. 

Distribution. — The Kru coast of Liberia. 

Type. — Adult male. Nanna Kru, Liberia, Jan. 8, 1911. 
Collector : Willoughby P. Lowe. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 

Measurements. — Bill 6 ; wing 92-93 ; tail to outer feathers 
74-76, to middle of fork 35 ; tarsus 11 mm. 

Remarks. — The alliance of these Kru coast Swallows with 
the form inhabiting Gabon has never seemed to me reasonable, 
considering that a pale-rumped bird occurs in Nigeria and 
that in the whole expanse of West Africa the localities where 
the dark-rumped birds occur is separated by thousands of 
miles. Considering that neither the tone of the brown rump 
nor of the crown agree in Liberian and Gabon examples, it 
seems sensible to describe the Liberian bird as distinct. Now 
that I have come to deal with the Hirundinidse in the fifth 
volume of my book the decision cannot be longer delayed, 
despite the need of additional material from both localities. 

Mr. Hugh Whistler sent the following description of 
a new subspecies : — 

Perdicula argoondah meinertzhageni, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Differs from the typical race (type-locality 
"Dukhun") in being much paler in coloration. The barring 
on the lower plumage of the male is less heavy in appearance, 
as the black bars are individually narrower. 

Distribution. — S.E. Punjab, United Provinces, Rajputana, 
Cutch, Central India, and the north of the Central Provinces 
about Jubbulpore. 

Type. — Adult male. January 7, 1926, Nasirabad, Rajputana 
(Meinertzhagen collection). 

Remarks. — Named after Colonel R. Meinertzhagen, D.S.O., 
who brought this new race to my notice and provided fresh 
material to substantiate it. 


Vol. lviii.] 10 [1937. 

Col. Meinertzhagen sent the following descriptions of one 
new species and one new subspecies : — 

Montifringilla theresse, sp. no v. 

Description. — A small Snow-Finch the size of a House- 
Sparrow. Pale hair- brown above, with darker brown centres 
to the feathers of the mantle. First three primaries brown 
with paler outer fringes, fourth primary with considerable 
white on the basal portion of the inner web, fifth and remaining 
primaries with almost the whole of the basal half creamy- 
white. Central rectrices brown, remainder with large dark 
brown spot at tip and white subapical band, basal portion 
a grey-brown in contrast to the true brown of the mantle. 
Chin and lores blackish, rest of underparts pale buff. There 
appears to be considerable variation in the shoulder of the 
wing, in some specimens being almost pure white and in others 
pale brown. 

There is little difference in the sexes, the throat of the female 
being slightly less black, and there is no black round the eyes 
or lores. 

Distribution. — This remarkable Finch is reminiscent of 
a dwarf Montifringilla nivalis adamsi, and we only met it 
at between 8500 and 9800 feet at Bamian and the Shibar Pass 
in northern Afghanistan. 

Type. — Male. Shibar Pass, 9800 feet, northern Afghanistan, 
April 19, 1937. On breeding grounds. In nry collection. 
Wing 93 mm. 

Measurements. — Wings of five males 93-99 mm., and of 
two females 89 and 91 mm. 

Remarks. — M . n. adamsi was breeding on the same ground. 

Sylvia nana theresae, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Colour above much darker and browner than 
8. n. nana, and below completely lacking the pale isabelline 
wash, this being replaced by an ash-grey wash. 

Distribution. — Rohri and Sukkur in Sind in January and 

Type. — Male. Rohri, Sind. January 25, 1937. Collected 
by Mr. A. Jones. In my collection. Wing 59 mm. 

Measurements. — Wings of two males 59, and of two females 
56 and 59 mm. 

1937.] 11 [Vol. lviii. 

Mr. Gregory M. Mathews sent the following notes on the 
genus Fregetta Bp., 1855 : — 

In ' Novitates Zoologies,' vol. xxxix. p. 34, I published an 
article on the genus Fregetta. At that time a bird collected 
by Gould, presumably about 1844, was considered to be the 
type of Fregetta. Another example, collected by Macgillivray 
in 1853, has been in the British Museum at least since 1855. 
These birds, labelled " leucogaster ,'' " have since proved not to 
be that bird, but another quite distinct species. This was 
pointed out in the Bull. B. 0. C. in June last, p. 144, when 
Bonaparte's bird collected by Macgillivray was renamed. 
In the July number of ' The Ibis,' p. 672, I raised the 
question of the validity of Fregetta versus Fregata. 

The diagnosis of the genus Fregetta Bp. 1855 fits the above 
birds, wrongly considered leucogaster, and does not fit the 
type of leucogaster. This latter type has been sent over from 
Philadelphia in middle June of this year, so these changes 
became necessary only after examination of the type. All 
work founded on a wrong basis must be eliminated. The 
reason why the bird in the British Museum was con- 
sidered to be Gould's type of T. leucogaster was the fact 
that it was collected by Captain Grey in lat. 35° 1' S., long. 
6° 15' E., whereas the real type was collected by the same 
man in lat. 36° S., long 6° 47' E. Both birds have the wide 
white fringes to the feathers on the back. As Gymodroma, 
1884, is a substitute name for Fregetta Bp., not Fregata, it 
carries the same genotype. Fixing the type of Fregetta Bp. 
is important, because the same type must belong to 
Cymodroma. So we have the following facts : 

When Bonaparte was working in 1855 his Thalassidroma 
oceanica equalled Procellaria grallaria Vieillot ; his Fregetta 
leucogaster equalled Fregodroma leucothysanus, and his Fregetta 
melanogaster was the same as Gould's. This being admitted, 
we have Bonaparte designating as type of his new genus 
F. leucogaster, and placing in this genus the bird " which 
differs hardly at all," viz., F. melanogaster. These were, 
Bonaparte continued, " quite distinct from my Thalassidroma 

Vol. lviii.] 12 [1937. 

One school of thought maintains that the designated type 
is the bird named even if wrongly labelled ; another school 
says that as you can only diagnose a genus on specimens, 
figures, or descriptions, the type is the species on which the 
diagnosis was drawn. 

It is also claimed that the first reviser has the right to 
say which of the above is to be accepted. 

As first reviser I designate as type of Fregetta Bp., 1855, 
Fregetta leucogaster Bp., not Gould, equals Fuegodroma leuco- 
thysanus Mathews, 1937, the species used by Bonaparte 
when he diagnosed his new genus. This )ast species is also 
the type of Cymodroma Ridgway, a substitute name for 
Fregetta Bp., not Fregata ; both these latter names, in 1884, 
were considered identical. In 1876 Salvin corrected Fregetta 
Bp. to Fregata. 

Fregetta Bp., 1855, is preoccupied by Fregata Lacepede, 1799, 
spelt Fregatta Stephens, 1826, both names having the same 
derivation and meaning. One named from the Frigate Bird, 
La Fregate or [Sula] fregata Brisson, vol. vi. 1760, p. 506, 
the other from the Frigate Petrel, Procellaria fregata L. 

In 1851 Lawrence (in Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York, 
vol. v. pt. 2, for May, p. 117) wrote Thalassidroma fregetta 
for Linne's bird, the quotation being " Thalassidroma 
fregetta (Sol.) Khul (Sic) Monogr." [Kuhl wrote fregatta and 
Solander wrote fregata.'] So the derivation of Bonaparte's 
Fregetta is taken from Lawrence's misspelling of Kuhl's name ; 
both must be corrected to Fregata. It was a practice amongst 
some writers to make a tautonym. Bonaparte made Bulweria 
for Procellaria bulweri ; Cookilaria for Procellaria cookii ; etc., 
etc. When he came to the Frigate Petrel, the Procellaria 
fregetta (Law.), he introduced Fregetta, Lawrence's misspelling. 

After a study of the above items we have in Fregetta Bp. 
a distinct case of a lapsus calami or typographical error for 
Fregata ; and Fregetta Bp., 1855, should be corrected to 
Fregata, as Salvin did in 1876. 

Bonaparte's name being preoccupied Ave must use the next 
name, which is Cymodroma, introduced to replace Bonaparte's 
name, for the reasons given above. Salvin, in the ' Catalogue 
of Birds," 1896, also used Cymodroma. 

1937.] 13 [Vol. lviii. 

Mr. Gregory M. Mathews also sent the following notes on 
some overlooked generic names : — 

In the ' Magazine of Natural History and Journal of Zoology, 
etc.,' conducted by J. C. Loudon, vol. vii. no. 43, p. 593, for 
November 1834, S. D. W.[ood] introduced the new genus 
Densirostra for the Coalhood or Bullfinch alone, which he 
called Densirostra atricapilla. This is a substitute name for 
Loxia pyrrhula L. The rejection of the Brissonian genera 
by the International Zoological Congress at Padua brings this 
genus name forward. 

In the 'Ornithological Guide,' 1836 (June?), C. T. Wood 
uses Densirostra for enucleata, and calls the Coalhood Pirula 
modular is. In this ' Guide ' Wood introduced the following 
genera : — On p. 183 Martula, type, by present designation, 
Martula fenestra= Hirundo urbica L. On p. 189 Muscicula 
is introduced for the Pied Flycatcher alone ; on p. 201 
Maridus is used for " Bihorea de Cayenne " of Daubenton, 
which Wood calls Maridus bahamensis, and this is the type of 
the genus Maridus by present designation ; on p. 203 
Longirostra, type Scolopax grisea Gmelin (in 'Analyst,' 
no. 15, April 1836, p. 119, Longirostris is made a substitute 
name for Macroramfus) ; on p. 211 Penguina is introduced 
for the Great Auk alone (this name is quite distinct from, 
but is preoccupied by, Penguinus Brunnich). 

In 'Analyst,' vol. hi. no. 13, October 1835, S. D. W.[ood] 
introduced the genus Eufipes, on p. 33, for the Red-legged 
Partridge, Rufipes vulgaris, the Tetrao rufus L., and on p. 206 
(January 1836) he confirms this on the Guernsey Partridge of 
Latham, which he called Eufipes picta. 

Also in the 'Analyst,' vol. iii. 1836, p. 211, Wood introduced 
Sterna elegans ; this preoccupies the same combination by 
Gambel, 1848. For the bird described in the ' Catalogue of 
Birds,' vol. xxv. 1896, p. 84, I propose the name Thalasseus 

Dr. Finn Salomonsen sent the following notes on the 
Philippine Paradise Flycatchers : — 

The Flycatchers belonging to the genera Xeocephus Bp. 
(Zeocephus) and Neoxeocephus McGregor, inhabit the Philippines 

Vol. lviii.] 14 [1937. 

and the Talaut Islands. Even in the most recent hand- 
books on the birds of the Philippines these two genera are 
maintained ; but in my opinion there is no reason to separate 
them from the widespread genus Terpsiphone or Tchitrea 
(of the two generic names for the Paradise Flycatchers Terpsi- 
phone appears to be the right one ; cf. Stejneger, Proc. U.S. 
Nat. Mus. vol. xxxvii. 1910, p. 652). The Philippine Paradise 
Flycatchers have the bill and the bristles around it exactly 
formed as in the East Asiatic Terpsiphone ; in structure they 
are almost identical with the strong- billed T. paradisi borneensis 
(Hart.). Bill in T. p. borneensis 13-15-5 mm., in Xeocephus 
rufus 14-16 mm. Also the structure of the wing is exactly 
as in T. borneensis : first primary is short, hardly 20 mm. 
longer than primary coverts ; the second primary slightly 
shorter than secondaries ; the third primary between sixth 
and seventh in length, and the fourth between fifth and sixth, 
the fifth being the longest. The fleshy blue eye- wattle in the 
Philippine Paradise Flycatcher varies very much in size, 
being large in Xeocephus, narrow in Neoxeocephus. A similar 
variation takes place among the members of the genus Terpsi- 
phone, some having no wattle at all, some having small wattles, 
and others having large wattles which in certain forms of 
T. paradisi and T. atrocaudata are as big as in Xeocephus. 
I draw attention to the fact that T. periophthalmica, 
now regarded as a subspecies of the Japanese Paradise Fly- 
catcher (T. atrocaudata) (cf. ' A Hand-list of the Japanese Birds,' 
edited by N. Kuroda and others, 1932, p. 46) was described 
as a new genus, Gallseops 0. -Grant, among other characters 
based on the large wattle. The coloration of the Philippine 
Paradise Flycatchers does not differ from that in Terpsiphone. 
Uniform blue forms, as Neoxeocephus cyanescens, are found 
in Terpsiphone too, for instance, the mut. bedfordi in the 
African T. ignea. Uniform red forms, as Xeocephus rufus, 
are not found in Terpsiphone, but some species are almost 
red, and the colour of T. nigriceps is almost identical with that 
of X. rufus. It is interesting that the coloration of N. cyanes- 
cens is due to bluish melanin (eumelanin) only, whereas in 
X. rufus it is due to red melanin (phaeomelanin) only, as we 

1937.] 15 [Vol. lviii. 

know these two pigments to replace each other in many 
species of Terpsiphone ; in T. tricolor neumanni specimens 
with bluish and others with reddish underside are mixed 
together. Also in the form and size of the crest and the 
length of the tail-feathers the Philippine Paradise Flycatchers 
vary as much as the members of Terpsiphone. The Philip- 
pine Paradise Flycatchers differ from Terpsiphone neither 
in structure nor in colour, and the maintenance of the genera 
Xeocephus and Neoxeocephus cannot be justified. It is 
noticeable that McGregor, the describer of Neoxeocephus, says : 
" My opinion is that both Gallseops and Xeocephus should be 
considered as no more than subgenera of Terpsiphone " 
(Philipp. Journ. Sci. vol. xviii. 1921, p. 79). Notwithstanding 
the question whether Xeocephus has to be incorporated in 
Terpjsiphone or not, the name of Xeocephus rufus has to be 
changed. Swainson described a Muscipeta rufa (in Nat. 
Hist. Birds West Africa, 1837, vol. ii. p. 60), which is a synonym 
of the Madagascan T. mutata (cf. Salomonsen, Bull. B. 0. C. 
vol. liii. 1933, p. 121). This name was not much used, but 
some students, for instance, E. T. Layard (' Birds South 
Africa,' 1867, p. 145), speak about Tchitrea rufa Sw. The 
bird now known as Xeocephus rufus was described bjr Gray 
in Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. xi. 1843, p. 371, under the name 
Tchitrea rufa. This, of course, is preoccupied by T. rufa 
Swainson, 1837, and as substitute for T. rufa Gray, 1843, 
I propose 

Terpsiphone unirufa, nom. no v. 

The genus Terpsiphone is represented by the following forms 
in the Philippine Islands : — 

(1) Terpsiphone cyanescens Sh.) : Palawan. 

(2) Terpsiphone cinnamomea unirufa Sal. : Northern islands ; 

specimens in British Museum) examined from Luzon, 
Marinduque, Mindoro, Negros, Panay. Length of 
central tail-feathers in adult males 120-173 mm. 

(3) Terpsiphone cinnamomea cinnamomea (Sharpe) : southern 

islands ; specimens (in British Museum) examined from 
Mindanao and Basilan. Length of central tail-feathers 

Vol. lviii.] 16 [1937. 

in adult males 90-100 mm. Not so deep rufous as 
T. c. unirufa, and abdomen usually (not always) paler 
creamy ; but the difference in colour is not very distinct. 
(4) Terpsiphone cinnamomea talautensis (Meyer & Wigles- 
worth) : Talaut Islands (Kabruang, Salibabu, Karkel- 
lang). Tail as in T. c. cinnamomea, but colour deep 
rufous as in T. c. unirufa. Doubtfully distinct from 
T. c. cinnamomea. Specimens (in British Museum) 
examined from Karkellang ; other specimens (co-types) 
kindly lent me by Dr. W. Meise, Dresden. 

The Marquess Hachisuka sent the following note on the 
famous painting of Edwards's Dodo : — 

Of all the contemporary drawings of the Dodo (Eaphus 
cucullatus), that of Edwards, painted by R. Savery in 1759 
and preserved in the British Museum (Natural History), 
is the most famous. Most of the later Dodo drawings are 
copies of this particular picture. It represents a female in 
the fat form, with two distinct rugosities over the upper 
mandible. The other birds represented in this painting are 
carefully executed and their species may be identified, although 
to my knowledge it has never been attempted. Due to my 
absence from London my observations are limited to the 

On the right top corner is perched a blue-and-yellow Macaw 
(Ara ararauna) ; on the left may be identified Ara chloro- 
ptera ; both are well-known species of Macaws from South 
America. The pair of ducks below the red Macaw are Mallards 
(Anas platyrliynchos) ; another duck, which appears on the 
right lower corner is a Wigeon (Mareca penelope). There is 
a dark- coloured Heron on either side of the Dodo ; since 
their bodies are entirely hidden, I am unable to identify 
the species. The last bird, which stands above the Wigeon, 
is the subject of this discussion. 

The earliest reproduction of this painting was made in 
1848 by H. E. Strickland, and printed in his book, 'The Dodo 
and Its Kindred,' and although uncoloured it shows many 
details now almost invisible in the original, especially of the 
objects in the background. 

1937.] 17 [Vol. lviii. 

The second copy, which is now preserved in the Ashmolean 
Museum at Oxford, was painted by Mrs. Louisa Gunther about 
1877, and was intended as a restoration of the original painting, 
which had become blackened with age. The colouring of the 
Oxford Dodo seems far too brown ; originally Edwards's 
Dodo must have looked much the same as the one reproduced 
in colour by Dr. C. A. Wood in Ibis, 1927, pi. xviii., especially 
in the pearl -grey colour of the breast and abdomen, and in the 
upper part of the tarsus, which is of a blackish colour, feathered 
like another of Savery's pictures of the Dodo now in the 
Bellvedere at Vienna. At present the Edwards and Oxford 
Dodo paintings are reproduced in colour as postcards and sold 
at both Museums. Another actual- size copy of Edwards's 
Dodo was made in oil by Keulemans. The exact date is 
unknown, but it was presumably made about the same time 
as the Oxford Dodo at the request of G D Rowley of Brighton, 
the editor of ' Ornithological Miscellany,' who wrote about the 
Dodo and other extinct birds between 1876-1878, and his 
journal was exclusively illustrated by Keulemans. The Keule- 
mans 's Dodo painting remained in the possession of Rowley's 
family until 1934, when his collection, including the two 
Great Auks and six eggs, along with Dodo bones, was sold 
at Stevens's (Jourdain, Ibis, 1935, p. 246). I acquired this 
painting and the bones, which are now in Tokyo. It is a very 
true copy. 

The next copy in actual size was made by Mr H Gronvold 
for the Smithsonian Institution, where it now hangs. I have 
only seen the photographic reproduction, so I am unable to 
criticize it. 

This painting shows a long-billed brown bird on the ground 
behind the Wigeon, at the shore of the lake, carrying a toad 
in its beak. One might believe this to be a Kiwi of New 
Zealand, but it cannot be so because the first Kiwi specimen 
to be forwarded to Europe was Apteryx australis, obtained 
by Capt. Barclay of the ship ' Providence ' about 1813, more 
than fifty years later than the date when Savery made his 
Dodo painting in Holland. Also, it cannot be the Hammerhead 
of Africa, because Gmelin described Scopus umbretta in 1789, 
exactly thirty years after the drawing was made Therefore 

Vol. lviii.] 18 [1937. 

I do not hesitate to identify this bird as Aphanapteryx bonasia, 
the Flightless Red Land-Rail, which existed once in Mauritius, 
and was brought over to Europe during the period when a 
number of Dodos reached several countries. My identification 
is unmistakable because of the slightly decurved bill and the 
elongated feather on the head and nape. The Oxford drawing 
shows clearly that the bird has no wings. We find an excellent 
coloured drawing of Aphanapteryx in Ibis, 1869, pi. vii., 
accompanied by an article written by Milne-Edwardes ; the 
restoration of the bird also appears in Lord Rothschild's 
' Extinct Birds,' pi. xxix. 

The first picture of Aphanapteryx was made by Van den 
Broecke, who visited Mauritius in 1617 and published the 
account and picture in 1646. The second is a painting on 
vellum preserved in the library founded by Emperor Francis I. 
of Austria. The bird which was used as a model for this 
picture was alive in the imperial menagerie which Rudolph II. 
and his father, Maximillian II. , kept from 1545 to 1618. 
The third is the one in Edwards's Dodo painting in the British 
Museum, which constitutes the second example of the bird 
brought alive to Europe (Holland), and the most recent 
living record. Therefore Aphanapteryx bonasia existed to our 
knowledge between 1617 to 1759, a period of a little less than 
one century and a half before it became extinct. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following three notes : — 

(1) On the Status of Caprimulgus dams Reichenow, and the 
Races of Scotornls climacurus (Vieillot), in Eastern 

Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. i. 1924, p. 253, places C. clarus 
as a race of G. fossil. 

In 1922, in Nov. Zool. xxix. pp. 85-86, van Someren points 
out that two species " occur together throughout Uganda 
and East Africa," and considers C. clarus to be a species 
with one race, C. c. apatelius. Hartert, in the same volume, 
p. 402, considers that C. apatelius is a race of C. fossil, and 
Friedmann, Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. Mus. 1930, p. 310, severely 

1937.] 19 [Vol. lviii. 

criticizes van Someren and proceeds to consider the matter 
one of some evolutionary interest. Our careful and critical 
examination of a good series of specimens, including the type 
of Caprimulgus clarus Reichenow, most kindly loaned to us 
by Dr. Stresemann, and six specimens of Scotornis climacurus 
sclateri, kindly loaned to us by Lieut. -Col. Stoneham, confirms 
van Someren's conclusions that there are two distinct species 
occurring together in eastern Africa. 

We had first of all agreed with Sclater, Friedmann, and 
others, as specimens in the British Museum from Bukoba 
(the type-locality of G. clarus) agree perfectly with typical 
C. fossii from both west and east of this locality. Moreover, 
we had placed C. clarus as a synonym of G. fossil . There were, 
however, specimens from Kampala, Entebbe, Kisumu, and 
Mkomasi in the British Museum which did not agree with 
the other specimens of G. fossii, having a different appearance, 
lengthened central tail-feathers, and graduated tails. These 
puzzled us, and so to be sure that the British Museum specimens 
from Bukoba were G. clarus we sent for the type. This type 
does not agree at all with these British Museum specimens 
from Bukoba, but agreed perfectly with the specimens from 
Entebbe, Kisumu, and Mkomasi (mentioned above), and with 
a series of C. apatelius from Abyssinia and the southern Sudan. 
It is now clear that we have before us two distinct species from 
Bukoba. A comparison of the plate i. in Von Der Decken's 
' Reisen,' vol. iv. 1870, and the original description in Orn. West 
Afr. 1857, p. 23, with specimens from West Africa shows that 
it is a square-tailed Caprimulgus and not a graduated tailed 
Scotornis, both of which have the white on the outer webs 
of the outermost tail-feather extending to the base. Therefore 
G. clarus has nothing to do with C. fossii, but has all the charac- 
ters of a Scotornis, and it is to that genus that we propose 
to attach it, making it a race of G. climacurus as follows : — 

Scotornis climacurus nigricans Salvad. 

Scotornis nigricans Salvadori, Atti. Soc. Ital. Milano, xi. 
1868, p. 449 : White Nile, Sudan. 

General colour sandy- buff to dark grey, tail in male greatly 
elongated. Wing 139-154 mm. 

Vol. lviii.] 20 [1937. 

Distribution. — Western Sudan (Darfur and Kordofan) to 
eastern Sudan (White and Blue Niles, Sobat, Baro), and 
north-western Abyssinia (Lake Tana). 


Caprimulgus clams Reichenow, J. f. 0. 1892, p. 29 : Bukoba, 
north-western Tanganyika Territory ; of which Caprimulgus 
apatelius Neumann, 0. M., xii. 1904, p. 143 : Lake Abaya, 
south-western Abyssinia, is a synonym. 

General colour paler, more sandy, and central tail-feathers 
in male only slightly elongated. Wing 138-159 mm. 

Distribution. — British Somaliland and eastern and southern 
Abyssinia, to south-eastern Sudan, Kenya Colony, north- 
eastern (as far as Kitgum) and southern Uganda (Kampala 
and Entebbe), and northern Tanganyika Territory (Bukoba, 
Bukoba District, and Mkomasi, Tanga District). 


Caprimulgus climacurus sclateri Bates, Ibis, 1927, p. 20 : 
Ngaundere, North Cameroons. 

General colour tawny-buff to chestnut, tail in male greatly 
elongated. Wing 134-149 mm. 

Distribution. — Nigeria to the south-western Sudan, as far 
east as Nimule on the Nile, northern Belgian Congo, and 
western Uganda (Kitgum). 

Both S. c. sclateri and S. c. clarus meet at Kitgum in northern 
Uganda, as shown by two specimens in the British Museum 
Collection, i.e., S. c. sclateri, adult male, Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 
1916.12.1.327, and 8. c. clarus, adult female, Brit. Mus. 
Reg. no. 1916.12.1.328. 

Bates, Ibis, 1927, p. 30, is of the opinion that in West 
Africa a movement takes place from the drier to the wetter 
zones, and Stoneham, Ibis, 1926, p. 84, records a movement 
in northern Uganda in the month of March. 

(2) On Caprimulgus nauta Lonnberg, Orn. Monatsb. xxiii. 

1915, p. 39 : at sea near Aden. 

Through the very great kindness of Count Gyldenstolpe 

we have been privileged to examine two of the four specimens 

on which this name was founded. These two specimens 

1937.] 21 [Vol. lviii. 

agree perfectly with the series in the British Museum Collection 
of Caprimulgus europseus unwini Hume, of which Caprimulgus 
nauta Lonnberg now becomes a synonym. 

(3) On the type-locality of Micropus affinis abessynicus 
(Streubel), Isis, col. 354, 1848. 
Streubel gives Abyssinia, and this has been followed by 
all authors. He founded his name on a specimen, or specimens, 
collected by Hemprich and Ehrenberg. These travellers 
visited Massawa (collecting specimens at Eylet and Arkiko 
near Massawa) in the spring of 1825, with the intention of 
travelling in Abyssinia, but Hemprich died at Massawa in 
June of that year and Ehrenberg started for home via Jidda 
in July. In their day Abyssinia covered the area now known 
as Eritrea. The correct type-locality of Micropus affinis 
abessynicus Streubel should therefore be : Near Massawa, 

IXth International Ornithological Congress : 
Rouen, 1938. 

President : Professor A. Ghigi. 
Secretary : Monsieur J. Delacotjr. 

Provisional Programme. 
Monday, 9 May : 

9.00-12.00. Registration of members of Congress at the 
11.00. Meeting of the International Ornithological 

14.30. Opening of the Congress at Town Hall. 
17.00. Reception at Town Hall. 
18.00. Excursion : La Corniche de Rouen. Bon- 
Tuesday, 10 May : 

10.00. Presidential Address. 
10.40-12.30. General Meeting. 
14.00-17.00. Meetings of Sections. 
17.00-18.30. Visit to the Natural History Museum, 
21.00. Soiree at Theatre des Arts, 

Vol. lviii.] 22 [1937. 

Wednesday, 11 May. 

10.00-12.30. Meetings of Sections. 
14.00. Excursion to Cleres. 
Thursday, 12 May : 

9.00. Long Excursion in the Valley of the Seine. 
Lunch at Caudebec-en-Caux. Forest of 
Bortonne, Mauny, Roches d'Orival. 
20.00. Banquet. 
Friday, 13 May : 

10.00-12.30. Meetings of Sections. 

20.30. Meeting of the International Ornithological 

21.30. General Meeting in the Town Hall. Close 
of the Congress. 


Saturday and Sunday, 14 and 15 May. — Visit and reception 
at the Museum and to establishments associated there- 

Monday to Thursday, 16 to 19 May. — Long Excursion to the 

N.B. — Visits to Monuments and Museums in Rouen, con- 
ducted by representatives of scientific and art societies, will 
be organized during the hours not occupied by the Meetings 
and Excursions of the Congress. 

The Sections will be as follows : — 
1st Section : Taxonomy and Zoo -Geography. 

2nd Section : Anatomy, Physiology, Palaeontology, and Em- 

3rd Section : Biology (Ethology, Ecology, Migration, Oology, 

4th Section : Applied Ornithology (Economic Ornithology, 
Taxidermy, Observations and Experiments on 
Birds in captivity). 

1937.] 23 [Vol. lviii. 

Conforming with the desire of the Permanent International 
Ornithological Committee expressed at the last Congress, it is 
proposed that questions concerning the Protection of Birds 
be dealt with during the Meetings of the International 
Committee for Bird Preservation which will take place in 
Rouen immediately before the opening of the Congress, on 
6 and 7 May, 1938. 

The Resolutions adopted and the proposals put forward 
will then be presented for the approval of the Congress at the 
final General Meeting. 

Those who wish to read papers must send intimation to 
the Secretary by 31 January, 1938, giving the following 
information : — 

(1) Title of paper, with number of typed pages and approxi- 

mate time required. 

(2) Section for which it is intended. 

(3) Whether illustrated by lantern- slides, films, or photo- 

graphs and prints. (Size of lantern- slides must be given 
and full details of film, i. e., whether inflammable or 
non-inflammable, size and length.) An epidiascope 
will be provided. 

All manuscript must be handed in before the close of the Congress, 
or it will not be included in the Proceedings. 


In addition to representatives of Governments, Museums, 
Scientific Societies, etc., all persons interested in Ornithology 
will be welcome as members of the Congress. The fee for 
each member is £1 ; if accompanied by a lady 10/- extra. 

Names and addresses of those wishing to become members 
of the Congress should be sent to the Secretary as early as 
possible in order to receive the final programme with full 
information concerning hotels, excursions, etc. 

All correspondence should be addressed to the Secretary . — 

Monsieur Jean Delacour, 

Chateau de Geres, Geres, 

Seine Inferieure, France, 


Ob' THE 



The four-hundred- and- third Meeting of the Club was held 
at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, 
November 10, 1937. 

Chairman : Mr. G. M. Mathews. 

Members present : — Mrs. R. G. Barnes ; F. J. F. Barrington ; 
Miss B. A. Carter ; Hon. G. L. Charteris ; H. P. O. Cleave ; 
J. Fisher ; H. A. Gilbert ; Miss Eva Godman ; Capt. C. H. 
B. Grant {Editor); Col. A. E. Hamerton ; B. Guy 
Harrison ; Dr. J. M. Harrison ; Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain ; 
N. B. Kinnear ; Miss E. P. Leach ; Dr. N. S. Lucas ; 
Lt.-Col. H. A. F. Magrath; Dr. P. H. Manson-Bahr ; 
J. G. Mavrogordato ; Col. R. Meinertzhagen ; C. Oldham ; 
B. B. Osmaston ; W. L. Sclater ; D. Seth-Smith ; C. F. M. 
Swynnerton ; The Marquess of Tavistock ; Dr. A. 
Landsborough Thomson (Hon. Sec.) ; B. W. Tucker ; 
Mrs. W. Boyd Watt ; H. Whistler ; C. M. N. White ; 
H. F. Witherby ; C. G. M. de Worms. 

Guests of the Club : — Professor F. S. Bodenheimer ; 
H. St. J. B. Philby. 

Guests : — Miss E. H. H. Carter ; Mrs. M. V. Gilbert ; 
P. H. Martin ; Miss Van Oostveen ; Mrs. Philby. 

Members 34 ; Guests 5 ; Guests of the Club 2. 

[December 2, 1937.] a vol. lviii. 

Vol. lviii.] 26 [1937. 

Chairman's Address. 

Since the last Annual Address the British Ornithologists' 
Union has lost by death one Honorary Member, Dr. Louis 
Bureau ; one Foreign Member, R. C. McGregor ; one 
Honorary Lady Member, the Duchess of Bedford ; and 
the following Ordinary Members, R. Brash, N. G. Brown- 
rigg, P. F. Bunyard, Sir Percy Cox, the Duke Gandolfi, 
Lord Rothschild, C. G. Talbot-Ponsonby, and M. Wenner ; 
while abroad Dr. R. C. E. G. J. Baron Snouckaert van 
Schauburg has died. 

The ' British Birds ' ringing scheme, which has been main- 
tained since 1909 by the Editor of that journal, with the help 
of many others, has been transferred to the Council of the 
British Trust for Ornithology, with its headquarters in the 
Bird Room at the British Museum (Natural History). All 
the rings will be inscribed " British Museum Nat. Hist. 
London," with the permission of the Trustees of that Museum. 

Regional Review {October 1936 to October 1937). 
Mr. E. G. Bird has returned from N.E. Greenland, leaving 
his brother Mr. C. G. Bird to spend a second winter there. 

The British Grahamland Expedition returned to England 
this summer after an absence of nearly three years. 


Mr. H. F. Witherby and the Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain 
visited Corsica during the spring, and Mr. Witherby was 
able to procure a juvenile male specimen of Sitta canadensis 
whiteheadi, thereby proving that the juveniles (like the adults) 
are different. 

Major W. M. Congreve collected in the vicinity of Gibraltar 
with Major H. C. Bridges, who is now resident there. He 
was able to travel freely, except in one valley (Vega de la 
Janda), which was closed by the authorities. 

Mr. H. Whistler carried out a tour of Poland in May. 

Mr. G. Tomkinson collected in Hungary this year, 

1937.] 27 [Vol. lviii. 

Miss CM. Acland visited Poland. 

Mr. B. W. Tucker and Mr. L. S. V. Venables spent some 
time in East Finmark and Mr. B. G. Harrison also collected 
in Northern Norway. 

Lt.-Col. R. F. Meiklejohn, Mr. H. J. R. Pease, and 
Miss Barclay returned to their old hunting-ground in Crete 
and also visited Greece. 

Mr. J. H. McNeile again returned to Estonia, and subse- 
quently went to Northern Sweden. 

Mr. C. H. Wells and Dr. N. May went to Northern Finland. 


Col. R. Meinertzhagen has returned after a successful 
collecting tour in India and Afghanistan. 

Mr. H. St. J. B. Philby is home from Arabia and Mr. G. L. 
Bates continues his work on the former's collections from that 


Rear- Admiral H. Lynes has returned from South Africa 
after a successful trip. 

Dr. C. B. Ticehurst and Mr. H. Whistler paid a short 
visit to the Hauts Plateau of western Algeria last month. 

Messrs. J. L. Chaworth Musters and P. T. Boughton 
Leigh made a trip to the High Atlas, now opened up by 
means of the new motor-road, and were successful in obtaining 
specimens of the very little known Bhodopechys s. aliena, 
hitherto known only from one specimen. The birds obtained by 
them have been placed in the British Museum (Natural History) . 

Mr. R. H. Greaves continues his researches on Egyptian 
birds ; Mr. R. Shuel continues his researches on the breeding of 
Nigerian birds, and Dr. W. Serle is also studying breeding 
questions in the same country. 

South America. 

Mr. A. R. G. Morrison has gone to Peru, where he plans 
to stay for nearly a year. 

Mr. D. Lack, with Mr. L. S. V. Venables, plans to visit 
the Galapagos Islands, with the financial assistance of various 
societies, the main object being an intensive study of the 
Geospizidse (Ground-Finches), which are peculiar to these 

Vol. lviii.] 28 [1937. 

Sir C. F. Belcher has left Trinidad and had taken up resi- 
dence in Kenya Colony. 


Band 2 of Dr. F. Groebbel's monumental work ' Der Vogel,' 
dealing largely with sex and reproduction, has recently been 

An important work on Palsearctic birds entitled ' Handbuch 
der Deutschen Vogelkunde. — Bd. 1. Passeres,' by G. Niet- 
hammer, has appeared, while the Club van Nederlandsche 
Vogelkundigen has produced the first volume of a work on Dutch 
birds entitled ' De Nederlandsche Vogels Determineerlijst.' 

Messrs. E. M. Nicholson and L. Koch have given us 
something new, as far as England is concerned, in the form of 
a second volume dealing with bird- song, accompanied by 
gramophone records which render the songs of a number of 
British birds. 

Mr. Ludlow Griscom has published a much needed revision 
of the Crossbills in the Proc. Boston Soc. N. H. vol. xli. no. 5. 

Dr. F. Steinbacher has completed Heft 5 of the Erganz- 
ungsband to Dr. Hartert's ' Die Vogel dei palaarktischen 

Volume ii. of Mr. N. Kuroda's ' Birds of the Island of 
Java ' has been published. 

A report on the ornithological results of the American 
Museum's 1933-34 Papuan Expedition has been published by 
Dr. E. Mayr and Mr. A. L. Rand in the Bull. Am. Mus. Nat, 
Hist. vol. lxxiii. 

An important paper dealing with the breeding biology of 
the Hornbills by Mr. R. E. Moreau appeared in the Journ. 
E. Africa and Uganda N. H. Soc. vol. xiii. nos. 1 & 2. 

Capt. C. D. Priest has published vol. iv. of his ' Birds 
of Southern Rhodesia.' 

Mr. J. T. Zimmer continues his " Studies of Peruvian Birds " 
in Amer. Mus. Novit. nos. xxii.-xxvi. 

Dr. J. P. Chapin discovered a new Peacock-like bird from 
the Belgian Congo, which he described under the name 
Afro'puvo congensis in the Rev. Zool. et Bot. Africaines, 
vol. xxix. fasc. 1. 

1937.] 29 [Vol. lviii. 

Dr. E. L. Gill has given us a useful book with the title 
' A First Guide to South African Birds.' 

An interesting work, * Bird Behaviour,' dealing chiefly with 
the Black-headed Gull, has been written by Mr. F. B. Kirkman. 

Mr. A. C. Bent has added yet another volume to his ' Life- 
Histories of North American Birds. Order Falconiformes.' — 
Pt. 1. Bull. 167, U.S. Nat. Mus. 

A de luxe edition of a work on the Dodo and other extinct 
birds of the Mascarene Islands is in course of preparation by 
the Marquess Hachisuka. 

The third volume of Mr. J. L. Peter's ' Check-List of 
Birds of the World ' has been published. 

An interesting booklet on the ' Lore of the Lyre-Bird ' has 
been written by Mr. A. Pratt. 

Dr. E. Stresemann, Dr. W. Meise, and Mr. M. Schonwetter 
have written an important paper on the Birds of Kansu and 
Kukunor collected by Walter Beick, which occupies a whole 
number of the J. f. 0. (vol. Ixxxv. Heft 3). 

Messrs. H. Whistler and N. B. Kinnear have continued 
their work on the Vernay Scientific Survey of the E. Ghats 
in Journ. Bombay N. H. Soc. vol. xxix. 

As before, I wish to thank the Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain 
for looking over the above and making some additions. 

Mr. H. St. J. B. Philby gave the following very interesting 
talk on Arabia, and showed slides : — 

A representative selection of the birds collected by me 
during my journey of last year in the south-west portion of 
Arabia between Mecca and the Hadhramaut has been brought 
here for you to see. My object is to speak to you not so much 
about the birds themselves as about the various types of 
country in which they are found. And some of the country, 
as you will see from the slides, is of a type not ordinarily 
associated with Arabia. Roughly speaking, the Yaman has 
Ethiopian affinities, as has long been recognized by those 
who have collected or studied the birds and other fauna of 
that mountainous tract. The political boundary between 
the Yaman and Sa'udi Arabia does not, however, follow 
a zoogeographical line. The southern part of the latter 


Vol. lviii.] 30 [1937. 

country — a strip 100 miles long from north to south, and, 
say, 00 or 70 miles wide — forms naturally a part of the Yaman 
rather than of Sa'udi Arabia, and it was with this part of the 
Ethiopian zone that I was concerned. In it, beyond the 
wide coastal plain of the Tihama, is a tract of great mountains 
of an elevation varying from 5000 to 8000 feet, traversed by 
splendid valleys with perennial streams — I saw six such 
" rivers," and there may be others — and covered from floor 
to summit with dense vegetation of a tropical or sub-tropical 
character. In some parts there are great park-like tracts 
of forest trees. In others the mountainsides, supporting 
a surprisingly large population, are laboriously terraced for 
the cultivation of coffee, Katha edulis, bananas, papayas, 
and other crops, including wheat, barley, and millet. In this 
country occur such birds as the Hammerhead, Hornbill, 
Paradise Flycatcher, Klaas's Cuckoo, two Doves of Abyssinian 
affinities, the beautiful long- tailed Abyssinian Roller, and 
others. Roughly speaking, the northern limit of this area is 
latitude 19J°. Its eastern limit is very sharply marked 
by the splendid escarpment of the Sirat, which forms the 
backbone of Arabia at an average elevation of 9000 feet. 

Beyond this escarpment eastwards lies the true Arabia, 
which from the zoogeographical standpoint might be labelled, 
it has been suggested, the Eremian region, as its affinities are 
with the Sahara on one side and the central Asian deserts 
on the other. The western part of this region forms a high 
plateau of rough, rather arid, mountainous country, descending 
gradually to an elevation of 6000 feet along the edge of the 
great, typical desert of Rub' al Khali. The southern part of 
the plateau is of sandstone overlying igneous rocks, and covered 
in parts by caps of basalt about 300 feet thick. Further 
north the igneous rocks have no sandstone covering, and, 
in the mountains about Abha, are thickly covered with juniper 
forest. Here I found the Magpie, as also Bury's linnet-like 
bird P. yemenensis, and the new Partridge (A. g. philbyi). 
The last was in great numbers, and seems, as far as I can say 
from observation, wholly confined to the eastern side of the 
escarpment and the plateau — from 9000 to 4000 feet. 

As the valleys of the plateau splay out into the desert 
we find a great deal of desert jungle — well-grown trees of 

1937.] 31 [Vol. Mii. 

acacia, jujube, etc. It was in such valleys that the Arabian 
Woodpecker was found, as also the Glossy Starling, a species 
of Serinus, and others. 

Beyond the plateau lies the true desert with its special 
denizens — Larks of many species, Macqueen's Bustard, Stone 
Curlews, Coursers, Sandgrouse, etc. Space forbids any 
attempt to speak of this area in greater detail. The Ostrich 
was once common enough in these parts, though it appears 
now to be extinct, except in the northern Arabian desert about 

Dr. Bannerman sent the following description of a new 
race of the South African Sand- Martin from the Cameroon 
highlands, which he proposed to name 

Riparia paludicola newtoni, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Adult male. Most nearly allied to the 
Abyssinian subspecies Riparia paludicola schoensis Reichw., 
from which it differs in lacking the white belly of that 
race, which in R. p. newtoni is pale brown. The upper parts 
are also a deeper tone of brown. From R. p. minor, the 
Nigerian and Sudan race, the new form may easily be recognized 
by its very much darker colouring both above and below. 

Distribution. — The Bamenda district of British Cameroons, 
3800-5000 feet. 

Type. — Adult male in the British Museum (Brit. Mus. Keg. no. 
1926.8.8.195). Bambulue, near Bamenda, 4800 feet, Brit. 
Cameroons, Feb. 1, 1925. G. L. Bates coll. Wing 100 mm. 

Remarks. — The habitat of this new race lies over 2000 miles 
to the west of the mountainous country inhabited by its 
nearest ally. The differences mentioned above are well marked, 
and I have no doubt that the dark belly of the Cameroons 
bird will prove to be a constant character, as well as its 
darker upper parts. I have had great pleasure in naming 
this new race in honour of Mr. Robert Newton, District Officer 
at Bamenda, who, although he did not secure the type, 
has furnished me with such excellent field -notes on the many 
rare mountain species which live in those highlands, and 
concerning which we knew practically nothing about their 
life- histories until Mr. Newton sent me his valuable notes 

Vol. lviii.] 32 [1937. 

for publication in my ' Birds of Tropical West Africa.' It is 
with great regret that I have just learned that Mr. Newton 
has been transferred to Palestine. 

Mr. G. L. Bates sent the following description of a new race 
of Wheatear : — 

(Enanthe lugubris boscaweni, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Adult male like (E. lugubris lugentoides, 
but whole top of head white without dark shaft-streaks, 
the bases of the white feathers being uniform buffy- brown ; 
the white of the rump also extending farther on to the back 
than in (E. I. lugentoides. 

Type in the British Museum, collected by Lt.-Col. M. T. 
Boscawen at Tarim in Wadi Hadhramaut, February 22, 1932. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1932.4.20.12. 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 87 mm., tail 60, tarsus 23, 
bill from skull 19. 

Remarks. — The white head makes the four Hadhramaut 
males look at first glance like (Enanthe lugens lugens ; but 
the distinction of the two groups or species (E. lugens and 
(E. lugubris, as was shown in ' The Ibis,' 1936, p. 706, lies 
more in the proportions of body, legs, and wings, and in 
the wing-formula than in the plumage of the male ; and by 
this criterion the Hadhramaut birds are (E. lugubris. More- 
over, the two females and one juvenile collected with the 
four males belong to (E. lugubris, but not (E. lugens. These 
seven specimens were collected at four separate places in 
Hadhramaut — three at Mukalla on the coast, one half-way 
between the coast and Tarim, the type and one female at 
Tarim, and one male in Wadi Du'an. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following three notes : — 

(1) On Caprimulgus europxus Linnaeus, and its Races in 
Eastern Africa. 

Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. i. 1924, p. 247, recognizes three 
races as occurring in Africa, but consideration must also 
be given to C. e. sarudnyi Hartert. Meinertzhagen, Nicoll's 

1937.] 33 [Vol. lviii. 

Bds. of Egypt, i. 1930, p. 322, and others consider G. e. sarudnyi 
to be an unsatisfactory race, and we entirely agree that there 
is no constant character by which specimens can be dis- 
tinguished when in their winter quarters. 

As regards G. e. meridionalis, Hartert in the original 
description (Ibis, 1896, p. 370) states that it is short- winged, 
and that it is darker in the west (i. e., Spain) and paler in the 
east (i. e., Greece). Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1922, p. 43, considers 
that this race can only be recognized on size, and gives wings 
of males 174-189 'mm. (type of G. e. meridionalis as 188, 
and another Grecian specimen as 187 mm.), against 189- 
204 mm. in G. e. europseus. Bates, Handb. Bds. W. Afr. 1930, 
p. 214, recognizes this race only as occurring in West Africa, 
but Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr. hi. 1933, pp. 149 and 151, 
gives both C. e. europseus and C. e. meridionalis. 

Wing -measurements (in mm.) of specimens in the British 
Museum collection are : — 

Great Britain. Sweden. 

o* 183-200 (seven measured). g 195 (one measured). 

$ 183-200 (thirteen measured). 


$ 191 (one measured). 

$ 190-198 (three measured). Spain and Portugal. 

Serbia. 6* 183-193 (two measured). 

$ 194-200 (two measured). ? 185-187 (two measured). 

Balearic Islands. Sicily. 

$ 186 (one measured). £ 202 (one measured). 

This gives for northern specimens, Sweden, Great Britain, 
France, and Germany, males 183-200 ; females 183-200 mm. ; 
and for southern specimens, Spain, Portugal, Balearic Islands, 
Sicily, and Serbia, males 183-202 ; females 185-200 mm. 
Although we have been unable to examine any specimens from 
Greece, the measurements given do show that there is a com- 
plete overlap in measurements, and it would appear that 
C. e. meridionalis is not smaller than C. e. europseus. The 
wing-measurements of the type of C. e. meridionalis and 
another Grecian specimen, as given by Meinertzhagen, are 
within the measurements of the seven males from Great Britain 
measured by us. We therefore also consider C. e. meridionalis 
to be a very unsatisfactory race, and fail to see any character 

$ 191 (one measured). 

Vol. lviii.] 34 [1937. 

by which it can be recognized in its winter quarters.* We can, 
therefore, only admit two races to the East African list : — 

Caprimulgus europmus europseus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 10th ed. 
1758, p. 193 : Sweden. 

Caprimulgus europseus unwini Hume, Ibis, 1871, p. 406 : 
Agrore Valley, Hazara District, north-western India. 

(2) On some necessary changes in the Status of some Eastern 
African Nightjars. 

(a) We agree with Friedmann, Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. Mus. 
1930, p. 307, that Caprimulgus frenatus Salvad. be placed as 
a race of Caprimulgus pectoralis Cuvier. It is clear b}^ the 
general markings of the upper parts and the amount of white 
in the tail of males that this is the correct place for it, and not 
as a race of Caprimulgus rufigena Smith. This leaves Capri- 
mulgus rufigena Smith as a species with a, so far, broken 
distribution from South Africa to the Sudan, Nigeria, and the 

(b) We agree with Sclater and Moreau, Ibis, 1932, p. 522, 
that Caprimulgus guttifer Grote is better treated as a species, 
as its smaller size and the amount of white on the tail of males 
does not agree with C. pectoralis Cuvier. The distribution of 
C. guttifer is now known to be from the Usambara Mts. in 
north-eastern Tanganyika Territory to Njombe in south- 
central Tanganyika Territory ; furthermore, C. pectoralis 
frenatus occurs in Tanganyika Territory as far south as Njombe. 

(c) Caprimulgus ruwenzorii 0. Grant must be treated as 
a species. It is not a race of Caprimulgus poliocephalus Riipp., 
as the amount of white in the tail of males does not agree with 
that species. 

(d) We are of opinion that, as Caprimulgus nigriscapularis 
Reichw. has the same general colour appearance and the same 
amount of white in the tail of males as Caprimulgus fervidus 
Sharpe, it must be placed as a race of that species. Specimens 
in the British Museum collection show that the distribution of 

* The Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain informs us that the eggs of C. e. 
meridionalis can be distinguished by their size. 

1937.] 35 [Vol. lviii. 

Caprimulgus fervidus fervidus Sharpe extends as far north as 
Kilosa, and Kikore (Kondoa District), in Tanganyika Territory . 

(3) On the Breeding Range of Cosmetornis vexillarius (Gould), 
Icon. Av. pt. ii. 1838, pi. 3 : Sierra Leone. 

In the British Museum collection is an adult female and two 
eggs of this species collected by C. H. B. Grant on the top of 
Kahara Mt., Ushingo, Kasulu District, western Tanganyika 
Territory, on October 6, 1923. This agrees with Chapin, Bull. 
Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. xxxv. 1916, p. 73, Map, who gives 
breeding dates as from September to January and the breeding 
area as far north as 3° to 5° S. lat. 





The four-hundred- and-fourth Meeting of the Club was held 
at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, 
December 8, 1937. 

Chairman : Mr. G. M. Mathews. 

Members present : — W. B. Alexander ; Dr. D. A. Banner- 
man ; Miss P. Barclay- Smith ; F. J. F. Barrington ; 
Miss M. G. S. Best ; A. W. Boyd ; Mrs. E. S. Charles ; 
Hon. G. L. Charteris ; Miss J. M. Ferrier ; J. Fisher ; 
Miss E. M. Godman ; B. Guy Harrison ; Dr. J. M. Harrison ; 
Dr. E. Hopkinson ; Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain ; N. B. Kinnear ; 
Miss E. P. Leach ; Dr. G. Carmichael Low ; Rear- Admiral 
H. Lynes ; C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; J. H. McNeile ; 
C. Oldham ; B. B. Osmaston ; H. Leyborne Popham ; 
Miss G. M. Rhodes ; D. Seth-Smith ; Mrs. R. Steuart ; 
C, R. Stonor ; Marquess of Tavistock ; Dr. A. Lands- 
borough Thomson (Hon. Sec.) ; B. W. Tucker ; Mrs. H. W. 
Boyd Watt ; H. Whistler ; H. F. Witherby ; C. G. M. 
de Worms. 

Guests : — J. F. M. Floyd ; A. Gibbon ; Miss C. E. Godman ; 
Miss M. Godman ; I. R. P. Heslop ; Miss M. Leyborne 
Popham ; H. Boyd Watt. 

Members 36 ; Guests 7. 

[January 5, 1938.] q, vol. lviii. 

Vol. lviii.] 38 [1937. 

The Revd. F. C. R. Jourdain spoke on the subject of the 
White Stork (Cicorpia c. ciconia) with special reference to the 
recent experiments, and also with regard to certain aspects of 
its migrations and life-history. 

With regard to the introduction of these birds to England in 
1937, there were, apparently, two objects — firstly, to ascertain 
whether young birds removed from Eastern Germany to the 
westward would follow the westward or eastward route of 
migration, and secondly (as many people imagined), to 
naturalize it in Great Britain as a summer resident. The 
first was, I believe, the aim of those who supplied the eggs and 
young birds. That young Storks reared here would return 
is improbable, as young have already been reared here and in 
due course migrated south, but did not return. The plan 
of placing Storks' eggs in Herons' nests seems to have been 
adopted without due consideration. In addition to the 
difficulties attendant on the differences in breeding season, 
size and colour of eggs, and incubation period, the feeding 
habits of the two birds are very different. Young Herons 
seize the parents' bill from the side, pull it down, and when 
the food appears in the lower mandible of the parent feed 
directly from it, swallowing the contents. The Stork, on 
the other hand, regurgitates food on to the nest and the young 
pick from it and are, in the earliest stages, fed by the parent 
from the food before them with small portions. Such essential 
differences between birds of different genera and families 
point to probable failure, and, in fact, this actually resulted, 
and subsequently young birds were imported. Then a study 
of ringing returns shows clearly that the Stork avoids anything 
like a long sea passage, even at the cost of hundreds of miles of 
extra travelling. Some of the imported birds, when moving 
south, reached the Dorset coast and the Isle of Wight. It 
would have been far more likely that birds liberated in East 
Anglia would cross the Straits of Dover (21 miles) than that 
birds from Dumfries should cross the Channel where it is 
about 60 miles wide. Birds should only be liberated where 
their natural food is abundant, and rabbits and mackerel are 
not the natural food of the White Stork ! 

1937.] 39 [Vol. lviii. 

Recent statements at meetings of the B. O. C. that Storks 
from East Germany migrate to West Africa have (as Dr. D. A. 
Bannerman assured the meeting) been now withdrawn. The 
route, clearly shown by returns of ringed birds, passes through 
the Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and 
down the eastern side of Africa to the Cape Province. Even 
for Denmark we have only records from the Cameroon s (1) and 
Lake Tchad, while it is one of the great problems connected with 
this species to ascertain where the many thousands of breeding 
Storks from the Iberian Peninsula and North- West Africa 
spend their short winter and what route they follow, but it is 
evident that they cannot range nearly so far south as their 
East European relatives, and probably winter somewhere 
in Equatorial Africa, and the few records we have tend to 
support this theory. 

The extraordinary way in which the White Stork" restricts 
the number of its family, by throwing out both eggs and young, 
was then referred to, and figures were quoted from Herren 
F. Hornberger and Lange as to the large numbers destroyed 
by the birds themselves in this way. Although the White 
Stork has practically no enemies, and has no need of special 
protection, the accurate returns from Middle Europe show that 
side by side with a steady increase in the numbers of breeding 
pairs in most districts (up to 1936) there was an equally 
striking decrease in the rate of young actually reared. The 
figures are given in papers by Herren Scheur, Emeis, Horn- 
berger, Schuz, and others, so that it is not necessary to repeat 
them here. One example will suffice : Lange states that in 
Denmark in 1931 356 pairs reared 1000 young (average 
2-8 per nest) ; in 1935 690 pairs reared only 1068 young 
(average 1*5 per nest). No fewer than 209 pairs had no family ! 
It is a strange phenomenon that the ancient emblem of 
fertility should become the pioneer of family restriction, and it 
would be of much interest to ascertain, the underlying causes. 

Dr. D. A. Bannerman, in Dr. Manson-Bahr's absence, said 
that as he (Dr. Manson Bahr) had laid himself open to criticism, 
he wished to state that the day following the last meeting he 
had received a letter from Dr. Manson-Bahr apologizing 


Vol. lviii.] 40 [1937. 

for having made an inaccurate statement, at the last meeting 
of the Club, about the occurrence of White Storks in West 
Africa. The mistake was due to his having read rather 
carelessly the 17th Report (in German) from Rossitten 
Observatory, and he had asked Dr. Bannerman on his behalf 
to withdraw the statement he had made and to see that it 
was not published in the ' Bulletin.' 

Dr. Manson-Bahr in a corrected statement wrote that the 
tragedy to which he had referred occurred in February 1937 in 
the eastern districts of South Africa, where there were very 
heavy rainstorms. " It was thought that many Storks 
were then infected with intestinal parasites, to which they 
succumbed in May when on their northward journey. In 
order to clear up the matter the staff at Rossitten are now in 
touch with the Parasitological Institute in Pretoria." 

Dr. Bannerman further said that since the publication 
of the first volume of his book, seven years ago, in which he 
had mentioned the White Stork as a " dry- season visitor " 
to the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast and Nigeria, 
although actual records were very scarce, he had received 
an eye-witness 's account of a considerable migration which 
had been observed in Bornu. His informant, Mr. A. M. 
Gwynn, at the time a Nigerian Government official, had 
written to him that White Storks were first seen by him on 
December 19, 1933, when half a dozen were noted feeding in 
flooded short grass along the Lake Tchad shore near Baga 
Seyorum. They were not far from the shore, and permitted 
close approach. Mr. Gwynn was at the time aware of the 
paucity of records from that area, and was also aware that 
a nesting colony of the Wood-Ibis had been mistaken for that 
of the White Stork, so took special notice of them. On the 
following day three were seen in the same place. Nearly 
a year later, October 29, 1934, a large flock, probably a couple 
of hundred birds, was seen between Mudu and Kasa, not far 
from Dikwa (Bornu). Some were on the ground, others 
circling in the air. During the next few days Mr. Gwynn 
saw this, or other flocks, on several occasions, the last being 
a large flock circling near Maidugari, Bornu, about November 7. 
Dr. Bannerman suggested, in view of this evidence, that there 

1937.] 41 [Vol. lviii. 

was no reason to suppose the White Stork did not pass regularly 
through the Tchad Territory to winter, perhaps, in some as yet 
undiscovered part of Central Africa. Reports of its occurrence 
in Ubangi-Shari were, however, very rare, which suggested 
that the Tchad Storks passed farther south. Mr. Jourdam 
had mentioned the great numbers of Storks which bred in 
Algeria and Marocco, and it should not be difficult, by ringing 
some of these birds, to eventually trace them to their winter 
quarters. There were a few records of migrating birds from 
Mauretania, as Dr. G. Bouet had recently mentioned in the 
Revue Fr. d'Orn. no. 1, 1937. 

Finally, Dr. Bannerman said he would like to take this 
opportunity to draw attention to a barbarous incident which 
had been reported to him from Uganda, where a native — 
in order to get the small monetary reward offered for the capture 
of ringed birds — had caught an exhausted Stork, deliberately 
broken both its wings, and brought the bird alive, with ring 
attached to it, to claim the reward. The incident had caused 
considerable indignation in the Station where it had occurred, 
particularly when it was learned later that the native had 
received his payment. Dr. Bannerman said he had this 
report on first-hand authority, and he hoped that steps would 
be taken immediately to discourage the practice before it 
grew, and to make it clear to the native population that 
no reward would be paid to anyone who had secured the rings 
by cruel methods such as he had had described to him. 
He was sure that all those who were interested in the ringing 
of birds would support this plea. 

Mr. I. R. P. Heslop said that in Nigeria the natives were 
very intelligent about reporting ringed birds, without expecta- 
tion of reward. 

The Marquess of Tavistock said that in reference to 
Mr. Jourdain's remarks on the small likelihood of success for 
the experiment of raising young Storks under Herons, he re- 
membered reading that in one instance the Herons did succeed 
in hatching the Stork's eggs, but the young birds died very soon, 
probably, as Mr. Jourdain suggested, owing to the different 
methods the two species had of feeding their nestlings. 

Vol. lviii.] 42 [1937. 

There did not appear to be any record of the successful 
introduction of a migratory bird into a new and unnatural 
habitat, except in cases where, as with the Canada Goose 
and, to a lesser extent, the American Snow Goose, the effect 
of artificial introduction had appeared to result in the destruc- 
tion of the migratory instinct altogether. 

At Woburn Abbey some years ago a pinioned pair of 
European Cranes produced two young, which were allowed to 
remain full- winged. These did not migrate until they were 
fully adult, when they nested and reared two young, but that 
autumn all four birds left and never returned, although it 
could not, of course, be known positively that they were not 

In regard to Mr. Jourdain's description of the curious habit 
displayed by Storks of destroying some of their eggs or young, 
he remembered reading a few years ago, in an apparently 
reliable article by an American ornithologist, that a species of 
Gannet (not the British one) normally laid two eggs, but 
never reared more than one young bird, invariably deserting 
or destroying the second egg or nestling. 

Mr. N. B. Kinnear cited evidence that eating poisoned 
locusts was not a cause of fatalities among Storks. 

Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson agreed with Mr. Jourdain 
that the recent experiment in England was of a kind not 
likely to throw light on migration. Presumably the idea had 
been to see what route the birds took in autumn, as in the 
previous experiments where the young had been removed 
from one part of Germany to another : these had been made 
under more favourable conditions and with larger numbers, 
but even so the results had been scanty and difficult to 

He also agreed as to the great importance of the data 
obtained by ringing Storks in the normal course in Denmark, 
Germany, Hungary, and elsewhere. The separation into 
south-eastward and south-westward flighting birds presented 
a problem of special interest : some of the Danish birds and 
those from the extreme west of Germany took the latter 
direction, but there seemed to be no definite boundary. 

1937.] 43 [Vol. Iviii. 

Although there were a few records of European ringed Storks 
from North-West, Central, and South- West Africa, there 
were only three records from tropical West Africa — a German 
bird in the French Congo and Danish birds respectively in the 
French Congo and the Cameroons. 

Dr. Thomson then referred to the recent paper by Schiiz 
(' Vogelzug,' viii. 1937, p. 175) on the migration of the White 
Stork in the spring of 1937. Many of the birds had been 
three or four weeks late in arriving in Germany : as a result 
they had failed to breed or had bred either unsuccessfully or 
very late. Evidence had been collected from different parts 
of South and East Africa that large numbers of Storks had been 
seen at unusually late dates, and that this might be related to 
exceptionally heavy rains and flooding there in the early 
months of the year. He agreed with Mr. Kinnear that the 
repeated reports of numerous deaths from eating poisoned 
locusts were unsubstantiated. 

Mr. B. W. Tucker doubted the idea that the number of 
Storks in Holland had been reduced by discouragement of nests 
on buildings owing to the pollution caused. Many artificial 
sites on poles had been deserted, and the decrease at the time 
in question had been widespread in Central Europe. 

Miss Phyllis Barclay-Smith said that those who had 
reared the young Storks in England last year had presumably 
had the benefit of the German experience : the birds had been 
sent from Rossitten, where rearing had previously been success- 
fully undertaken. 

Mr. C. R. Stonor referred to the case of a pair of captive 
Lammergeiers, in which two eggs were laid each season, but 
one was always destroyed at the time of hatching. Also to the 
recent case of a White x Black Stork hybrid (in captivity). 

Mr. James Fisher inquired whether the increase in the Stork 
population was accompanied by an increase in parasites or the 
occurrence of epidemic disease, which might be a limiting factor. 
Also whether the European Starling in America was not an 
exception to the Marquess of Tavistock's statement that no 
migrant had been successfully introduced into a new area and 
retained its migratory habits. 

Vol. lviii.] 44 [1937. 

The Hon G. L. Charteris mentioned the case of a pair of 
Storks in Hungary of which the male was killed after the eggs 
had been laid. A new mate was taken, but the eggs of the 
original union were ejected. 

Mr. G. M. Mathews sent the following note on the name of 
the British Long-tailed Tit : — 

Mecistura rosea Blyth, Loudon's Mag. Nat. Hist. ix. August 
1836, p. 394. In this article on moults Blyth has placed an 
asterisk against the English name " Rose Muffler," but not 
against the Latin name "Mecistura rosea," which is in brackets. 
This asterisk refers to the footnote " Parus caudatus Linne." 
It is therefore clear that Blyth considered the " Rose Muffler " 
to be same bird as that named by Linnaeus. The point raised 
is whether he intended the Latin name to be connected with 
the English name. I think there can be no doubt that this 
is what he intended, and that Blyth's Latin and English names 
refer to one and the same bird. This being so, Mecistura wsea 
must be considered as a substitute name for Parus caudatus 

Mecistura rosea Blyth, Nat. Hist, of Selborne, 1836 (? 1837), 
p. Ill : Selborne, Hampshire. The name in this work is 
preoccupied by that in the above work. Therefore the 
British Long-tailed Tit requires a new name, and as it is so 
much more suffused with pink than the Continental form 
I name it 

£2githalus caudatus rosaceus, nom. no v., 

for Mecistura rosea Blyth, Nat. Hist, of Selbourne, 1836, 
p. Ill : Selborne, Hampshire; not Mecistura rosea Blyth, 
Loudon's Mag. Nat. Hist. ix. 1836, p. 394. 

Monsieur J. Berlioz sent the following description of a 
new race of Humming-bird from Peru — 

Oreonympha nobilis albolimbata, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Male adult. Similar in shape and pattern to 
0. nobilis Gould. Forehead and vertex dull deep brown-red, 

1937.] 45 [Vol. lviii. 

bordered on each side with a band of white feathers, 
centred with metallic bluish-green, these green centres much 
reduced in front, more conspicuous on the pileum, where they 
merge into the dark metallic- bronzy colour of the neck. 
Upper parts of the body metal lie -bronze, varied on the nape 
and hind neck with dull brown-red edgings to the feathers ; 
upper tail- coverts reddish- coppery bronze. Bronze and white 
pattern of the tail-feathers quite similar to that of 0. nobilis 
nobilis. but the bronze colour with a much more reddish- 
coppery hue. Underparts as in 0. n. nobilis ; cheeks and 
throat deep black, with the middle of the latter brilliant 
met allic -green, this green patch followed by a tuft of elongated 
feathers of a metallic pinkish -purple ; sides of chest whitish, 
merging on breast and abdomen into dirty whitish-grey or 
very light brownish ; under tail- coverts bronze, with whitish 
edgings to the smaller ones. 

Type. — In the British Museum ; adult male, Yauli, Huan- 
cavelica, central W. Peru (about 11,500 feet) ; collected on 
September 8, 1937, by A. Morrison. 

Measurements of type. — Culmen 23 mm. (0-9 in.) ; wing 
85 ; tail 85. 

Remarks. — The female is smaller than the male but with 
a relatively shorter tail, of the same general pattern and 
colours, but lacking the well-defined and showy markings of 
head and throat, or rather with only slight and variable 
indications of the same, the feathers of throat and sides of 
forehead more or less varied with whitish fringes. 

Specimens examined : 0. nobilis albolimbata, 1 <} ad. (type), 
1 (J imm., 2 $2 ; O. nobilis nobilis, 3 <$<$ ad., 3 $$ ad.) 

This new handsome Humming-bird was discovered in 
central Western Peru by Mr. Alaister Morrison, and seems 
to be a well-defined western geographical representative of 
the allied 0. nobilis Gould. It is only slightly smaller than the 
latter, but at once distinguished by the white bands on each 
side of the crown in the male, these bands being metallic 
purple-blue in 0. nobilis nobilis, with only sometimes a very 
faint indication of white near the commissure of the bill, 
and by the tail-feathers being decidedly more coppery. The 

Vol. lviii.] 46 [1937. 

two females examined differ from the same sex of 0. nobilis 
nobilis in the same way as do the males ; neither of them, 
however, show any metallic feathers on the throat (contrary 
to the female of 0. n. nobilis), but this character seems rather 
variable among the Trochilidae belonging to this and the 
neighbouring groups (Ghalcostigma, Heliangelus, etc.), and 
until further material is received it cannot be considered 
as being of great value. 

It may be added that 0. nobilis was hitherto known only 
from the mountains in south-eastern Peru, Cuzco province, 
where it was discovered by H. Whitely, and collected later on 
also by 0. Garlepp and others (it is common in the temperate 
and puna zones of the Urubamba Valley according to 

Mr. C. M. N. White sent the following note on some Solomon 
Island birds : — 

The following notes refer only to some points of interest in 
a small collection of birds from Bougainville collected at 
Buiii by the Revd. Poncelet. In deciding what was worthy of 
note I have, of course, based my considerations upon the 
numerous recent papers, mainly by Dr. E. Mayr in American 
Museum ' Novitates,' and the earlier paper by Rothschild and 
Hartert (Nov. Zool. xii. 1905, p. 243). 

Phalacrocobax m. melanoleucus (Vieill.). 
A male (5. hi. 36) is clearly this race, not P. m. brevicauda 
Mayr. Wing 250 mm., tail 165. 

Not previously recorded from the more northern Solomons. 

Dupetok f. woodfordi (Ogilvie Grant). 

Two examples (24. i. 36 and 27. xii. 35). Wings 210, 215 mm. 

The whole species Dujmtor flavicollis is obviously in need 
of a full revision to determine variation. There is a gradual 
progression from birds with a distinctive blue and black 
plumage from India and Burma to the brown birds from 

1937.] 47 [Vol. Ivriii. 

Moluccas and Australia and the more rufous birds in the 
Solomons. Judging from the material examined, the latter 
really form a race which retains a more immature stage of 
plumage throughout life. New to Bougainville. 

Nesoclopeus woodfordi (Ogilvie-Grant). 

A male collected 7. iv. 36 shows that this Rail drops all its 
quills simultaneously when moulting. Another January 
example is in full plumage. Both have much larger bills than 
the type, which does look a juvenile, though Rothschild and 
Hartert (L c. p. 248) doubted this. 


Neither the green colour being lighter nor the shorter wing 
seem to be actual facts to separate this race from subplacens 
(Scl.). It is supposed to intergrade with the latter in Wood- 
lark Island, and perhaps in Northern Papua. From the 
good series I have seen — twelve from Bougainville and twelve 
from New Britain and Woodlark Island — I cannot even see 
a trace of intergradation. Material of C. subplacens is small 
(three examples) and from Northern Papua ; this seems quite 
inseparable from G. p. pallidior. As C. subplacens was 
described from Narabui I cannot unite the two races without 
further material from the south coast ; but in any case I think 
birds from N.E. New Guinea should be called C. p. pallidior. 
Typical C. placentis certainly has darker ear- coverts than 
C. p. pallidior ; G. intensior is very distinct in the North 
Moluccas, intermediate in Seran and in the Aru Islands. 

Ceyx lepida meeki Rothsch. 

G. I. jMllidusM&yr, 1935, Am. Mus. Nov. 820, p. 2 : Bougain- 
ville, had better be placed as a synonym. It was based on 
only three examples, and on differences noted in the field. 
Four examples which I have received do not support its 
characters, and Dr. Mayr tells me that additional material now 
available in the Rothschild Collection does not support it. 
Only one of my four examples is paler below than four from 
Choiseul in the British Museum. 

Vol. lviii.] 48 [1937. 

Monsieur V. Danis (Bull. Mus. Nation. d'Hist. Nat. ix. March 
1937, p. 119) in a paper on some birds from Bougainville 
regards meeki as a distinct species, but I do not think this 
view is tenable. 

Pod argus ocellatus inexpectatus Hart. 

A male and female. Wings : $> 215 mm., $ 217. 

Rothschild and Hartert (I. c, p. 258) thought four Bougain- 
ville and Choiseul birds might be a different race, as they 
were smaller than one from Isabel — wings 198-207 mm. 
against 220. This is not confirmed by these two further 

Chalcites lucidtts lucidus (Gm.). 

A male (21. v. 37) supports the conclusions reached by 
Mayr (Am. Mus. Nov. 520, 1932, p. 3). The date is earlier 
than most previous records, though Meek collected one on 
Vella Lavella on March 16. 

Mr. R. E. Moreau sent the following description of a new 
race of Bar- throated Warbler : — 

Apalis murina fuscigularis, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Similar to Apalis murina murina, but has the 
throat to chest wholly sooty- black ; and the chin ashy- brown, 
as are the sides of the face and top of head. 

Distribution. — The three small patches of evergreen forest 
remaining on the top of the Taita Hills, southern Kenya 

Type. — In the British Museum ; male adult ; collector's 
no. 4483. Taita Hills, southern Kenya Colony (5400 feet), 
November 12, 1937, collected by R. E. Moreau. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 54 mm. ; tail 50 mm. 

Remarks. — Two other males from the same locality agree 
with the type. A female is of especial interest, having the 
chin whitish and the throat sooty- brown ; individual 
feathers on the throat have white tips, especially those along 
its lower edge, so that a blackish breast-band, occupying the 
same position as in Apalis murina, is perceptibly defined. 

1937.] 49 [Vol. Iviii. 

This new race was wholly unexpected, as it occurs on the 
extreme periphery of the range of the group, which has not 
hitherto been found so far north as Kenya Colony. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth- 
Praed sent the following two notes : — 

(1) On the Type-locality of Gypselus barbatus (Micropus apus 

barbatus) P. L. Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1865, p. 599. 
Sclater adopted an MS. name written by Temminck on 
two specimens from South Africa, and does not specify any 
other locality. This has been followed by all authors. 
Dr. Junge of the Leiden Museum has kindly informed us that 
there are three specimens, all labelled " S. Africa, Cap." 
Catalogue No. 1, adult is labelled as " Type of Temminck." 
The other two are males and were collected on " September 10, 
(1833)." The locality given on the type allows us to fix the 
type-locality of Gypselus bmbatus P. L. Sclater as Cape 
Province, South Africa. 

(2) On some East African Swifts. 

Van Someren, Nov. Zool. xxix. 1922, p. 88, considers 
G. niansse and A. kittenbergeri to be synonyms, and A. reiche- 
nowi to be a synonym of A . sequatorialis. 

Meinertzhagen, Ibis, 1922, p. 36, places A. a. kollibayi 
as a synonym of M . a. apus, and A. a. marwitzi as a synonym 
of A. a. pekinensis, and on p. 42 considers that G. niansse and 
A. kittenbergeri have nothing to do with the M . a. apus group. 

Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. i. 1924, p. 256, treats A. a. kolli- 
bayi as a race of M . a. apus, G. niansae as a species, and 
A. reichenowi and A. kittenbergeri as races of M. se. sequatorialis. 

None of these authors appear to have had the opportunity 
of examining the types. 

Through the very great kindness of Dr. Stresemann of the 
Berlin Museum, Dr. Greschik of the Budapest Museum, Dr. Sassi 
of the Vienna Museum, and Dr. Festa of the Turin Museum 
we have had on loan the types of A. a. marwitzi, G. s. marwitzi, 
G. niansse, A. reichenowi, A. kittenbergeri, A. a. kollibayi, and 
0. myoptilus. 

Vol. lviii.] 50 [1937. 

The examination of these types has not only completely 
cleared up the confusion in this group, but shows that without 
the types it is impossible to come to a definite conclusion. 

The results of this examination and comparison are as 
follows : — 

(a) Apus apus marwitzi Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb. 1906, 
p. 171 : Mkalama, Tanganyika Territory, is a synonym of 
Micropus apus pekinensis (Swinhoe), P. Z. S. 1870, p. 435: 
Pekin, China ; and Apus apus kollibayi Tschusi, Orn. Jahrb. 
xiii. 1902, p. 234 : Curzola Island, Dalmatia, is a synonym of 
Micropus apus apus (Linnaeus), Syst. Nat. 10th ed. 1758, 
p. 192 : Sweden, which agrees with the conclusions of Meinertz- 

(b) Cypselus niansse Reichenow, J. f. O. 1887, p. 61 : 
Kagehi, near Mwanza, Kwimba District, Tanganyika Territory 
= Cypselus shelleyi Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. Genova, xxvi. 
1888, p. 227 : Dembi, Shoa, Central Abyssinia, the type of 
C. niansse agreeing with the type and series of G. shdleyi in 
the British Museum Collection. 

As both G. niansse, and G. barbatus occur in north-eastern 
Tanganyika Territory, we propose to treat the former as 
a species, and call the latter a race of Micropus apus. 

(c) Apus kittenbergeri Madarasz, Arch. Zool. Budapest, i. 
1910, p. 177 : Ngare Dowash (=Upper Amala River), south- 
western Kenya Colony, is the same bird as that described by 
Vincent as Micropus apus lawsonse, Bull. B. O. C. liii. 1933, 
p. 240 : Palombe, Mlanje District, Nyasaland. 

Our critical examination further shows that none of the 
characters given by Vincent hold good, and that M . a. law- 
sonse=M. a. barbatus, specimens in the British Museum 
Collection from near Cape Town and Natal agreeing perfectly 
with Nyasaland birds. The combined wing-measurements 
of specimens from South Africa to Kenya Colony give 163- 
189 mm., which agrees with the range of wing- measurements 
of Micropus apus apus, 158-182 mm., and Micropus apus 
'pekinensis, 163-185 mm. Therefore both A. kittenbergeri and 
M. a. lawsonse become synonyms of Micropus apus barbatus 
(P. L. Sclater) Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond, 1865, p. 599 : Cape 
Province, South Africa, 

1937.] 51 Vol. Iviii. 

(d) Apus reichenowi Neumann, Bull. B. 0. C xxi. 1908, 
p. 57 : Donje Erok (=Doinyo Erok) Mt., southern Kenya 
Colony, is quite a distinct bird and should be treated as a species, 
not as a race of Micropus mquatorialis sequatorialis (Miiller), 
especially in view of the observation in the original description, 
as follows :— " On Donje Erok this species lives side by side 
with A. sequatorialis and other Swifts." 

(e) As stated by Sharpe, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus. xvi. 1892, 
p. 459, the type of Cypselus myoptilus Salvadori, Ann. Mus. Civ. 
Genova, xxvi. 1888, p. 228 : Let Marina, Shoa, Central 
Abyssinia, is a young bird. The flight- and tail-feathers are 
not fully grown, and the specimen could only have just left the 
nest. The wing- measurement of 110 mm. given for the type 
is therefore valueless. Allowing for its youth, this specimen 
agrees with an adult female from Nanyuki, Kenya Colony, 
kindly loaned to us by Colonel Meinertzhagen, and with the 
type of Micropus achimodzi Vincent, Bull. B. 0. C. liii. 1933, 
p. 171 : Palombe, Mlanje District, Nyasaland, which thus 
becomes a synonym of Micropus myoptilus. 

The four known specimens give the following dates : — 
Central Abyssinia, September 10 ; Kenya Colony, March 7 ; 
Kilimanjaro, January 2 ; Nyasaland, September 6 ; the first 
and last records show that it is resident throughout its range. 
The wing-measurements of the three adult specimens give 
127-141 mm. 

(f) Ghsetura stictilssma marwitzi Reichenow, O. M. xiv. 
1906, p. 171 : Mkalama, Tanganyika Territory. The type is 
very dull in colour, being dull sooty- brown, and the wings and 
tail, though black, have very little blue-black gloss. It is 
not brown or faded and does not agree in tone of colour with 
four specimens in the British Museum Collection from north- 
eastern Tanganyika Territory. No other specimens are 
available from the Mkalama country. We believe, therefore, 
that it is a good race of Telacanthura ussheri. 

%>\'YcL KftO^ 






The four-hundred-and-fifth Meeting of the Club was held 
at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Wednesday 
January 12, 1938. y ' 

Chairman : Rev. F. C. R. Joubdain. 

Members present :— Miss C. M. Acland ; W. B. Alexander 
Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; Mrs. R. G. Barnes • F J p 
Barrington ; Miss B. A. Carter ; Hon. G. L. Chabtebis 
Brig.-General G. V. Clarke ; H. P. O. Cleave ; Miss J M 
Ferrier; J. Fisher; Capt. C. H. B. Grant [Editor) 

B. Guy Harrison ; Dr. J.M. Harrison ; Mrs. T. E Hodgkin 
Miss E. P. Leach ; Dr. G. Carmichael Low C W Mack 
wobth-Pbaed; J. H. McNeill ; J. G. Mavbogobdato 
Dr. W. Norman May ; Mrs. D. Micholls ; T. H. Newman 

C. Oldham; H. Leyborne Popham ; W. L Sclater 
Major A. G. L. Sladen (Hon. Treas.) ; D. Seth-Smith 
C. R. Stonor ; Marquess of Tavistock ; Miss D. L. Taylor 
Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson (Hon. Sec.) ; B. W Tuckeb 
Miss E. L. Tubneb ; Mrs. H. W. Boyd Watt • C M N 
White ; H. F. Withebby. 

<W.:-J.A.E.Babnes; C.T.Dalgety; Mrs. Dalgety • 
Lady Constance Howabd ; A. Micholls ; Mrs Sclateb • 
H. N. Southebn ; L. S. V. Venables ; H. G. Vevebs. 

Members 38 ; Guests 9. 
[February 5, 1938,1 a 

Vol. lviii.] 54 [1938. 

Mi\ W. B. Alexander and Mr. H. N. Southern made 
the following remarks on distribution of the bridled form 
of the Common Guillemot ( Uria aalge) : — 

The occurrence of polymorphism in birds is well known, 
but quite unstudied, much less explained. In the Common 
Guillemot, Arctic Skua (Stercorarius parasiticus), and Giant 
Petrel (Macronectes giganteus) the lighter dimorphic form 
occurs nearer the poles, but in the Reef Heron (Demigretta 
sacra) it is tropical, and in the Fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) 
there is east and west differentiation of ranges. 

Present information shows that the bridled Guillemot 
grows commoner in the more northern parts of the British 
Isles, but available figures are few, and there are frequently 
discrepancies in figures for the same colony. In the area of 
U. a. albionis percentages are low — on the South Coast 
(e. g., Durlston Head) 1 per cent., in Pembrokeshire 0-5 per cent., 
while in North Wales several observers have reported not 
a single bridled bird to be present. Ireland shows about 
the same range of figures. In the Fames the proportion 
rises to about 5 per cent., and in the Isle of May to 12 per cent. 
In the west the Hebridean region has 8 to 20 per cent., though 
on St. Kilda the numbers are again low. On the north coast 
of Scotland and the Orkneys reports vary from 5 per cent, 
to 50 per cent., but probably the most accurate figure would 
be about 20 per cent. In the Shetlands a large count on Noss 
gave 33 per cent, of bridled birds. 

Outside the British Isles figures are even less satisfactory. 
In Heligoland 1 per cent, is in accordance with its latitude 
in comparison with England ; in the Faroes, with their own 
race, U. a. spiloptera, 20 per cent, are said to be bridled, 
while Iceland shows the highest figure of 75 to 80 per cent, 
in the Westmann Islands. In Bear Island the race U. a. hyper - 
borea has slightly more bridled birds than ordinary, while 
in Norway, Greenland, and North America bridled birds occur, 
but there is no information as to numbers. 

The question of the races is of interest because of the possible 
correlation with the distribution of the bridled character. 
The relationships of U. a. albionis, U. a. aalge, and inter- 
mediate birds (e. g., from the Forth area) show that there 

1938.] 55 [Vol. lviii. 

may be a geographical trend from south to north in back 
colour correlated with increasing percentages of bridled birds. 
On the other hand, the matter may not be so simple as this, 
since certain areas show isolation, e. g., the Faroes, the 
Hebridean area, Bear Island. The gradation may be more 
irregular or stepped in nature instead of a simple trend. 

Biological problems, such as the genetic situation involved, 
and the manner of spreading of the bridled gene and possible 
light on the question of speciation, may later be treated in 
the inquiry proposed by the British Trust for Ornithology, 
though the first requisite is reliable figures for all British 
Guillemot colonies It is hoped that a fairly complete picture 
of the status of bridled birds may be obtained during the 
coming year, and all ornithologists who may visit Guillemot 
colonies next summer are urged to help by making counts. 

The Marquess of Tavistock exhibited an egg of the Tahiti 
Blue Lory and remarked : — 

The egg shown is one of two (the normal clutch for the 
species) laid recently in my aviaries by a Tahiti Blue Lory 
(Coriphilus peruvianus). The little Parrots are now very rare, 
and are confined to certain small islets of the Tahiti group, 
having been exterminated over a great part of their former 
range, possibly through the introduction of rats. Indeed, 
I believe that for a time they were regarded by the Museum 
authorities as probably already extinct. 

In. a wild state the birds feed on the nectar of palm-tree 
blossom. In captivity I give mine Dr. Allinson's food, 
prepared as for infants and sweetened and then mixed with 
an equal volume of water. They also take ripe fruit, coconut 
" milk," and mealworms. The plumage of the adult is very 
striking and beautiful, being of a uniform glossy, dark blue, 
with a large white bib. The bill and feet are yellow, more 
orange in the cock than in the hen. There is little difference 
in the appearance of the sexes, but the male is slightly the 
larger of the two. The eyes are dark in colour and curiously 
small. The nestling down of the young is sparse and grey, and 
the first plumage blue-black, somewhat more black and less blue 
than that of the adult. There is a little greyish-white round 


Vol. lviii.] 56 [1938. 

the chin, and the beak and feet are dusky. Adult plumage is 
probably assumed when the bird is about a year old, but of 
this, as yet, I have no certain knowledge. 

The other egg laid at the same time as the one shown was 
hatched after an incubation period of a little over three weeks, 
and the young bird left the nest rather more than eight weeks 
later — a short period for a Lory. The nest provided was 
a hollow tree- trunk, filled with peat and decayed wood, 
the base resting in a vessel of water to provide the necessary 
moisture. Both sexes took turns at incubation, and when 
the young bird was very small the hen appeared to come off 
to feed more often than the cock. At the present time, 
that is to say about a month after the young bird left the nest, 
a second clutch of two eggs is being incubated. 

C. peruvianus has a weak sibilant cry. Although it climbs 
actively, and a mated pair play together after the fashion 
of other Lories, the flight is extraordinarily weak and slow, 
resembling that of a sick or very young bird. In their 
natural habitat the Lories clearly can never encounter strong 
winds or have to move much further than from one branch 
of a tree to another. 

The Revd. F. C. R. Jourdain invited Miss Phyllis Barclay- 
Smith to explain her remarks reported in the last ' Bulletin.' 

Miss Phyllis Barclay-Smith accepted the invitation and 
made the following remarks : — 

She said that though she had doubted several of Mr. Jourdain's 
remarks concerning the Stork experiment, as she had taken 
no part in the experiment herself, she had not gone further 
than to disagree with him in general terms at the last meeting. 
She had, however, forwarded a copy of the ' Bulletin ' con- 
taining the report of Mr. Jourdain's speech to Mr. Robert 
Blockey, of the Haslemere Educational Museum, who, 
with Mr. C. I. Blackburne, had been responsible for the 
Stork experiment, mentioning her doubts as to the accuracy 
of some of Mr. Jourdain's statements and asking for exact 

Mr. Jourdain had mentioned that there had apparently 
been two objects for the experiment, the second being, as many 

1938.] 57 [Vol. lviii. 

people imagined, to naturalize it in Great Britain as a summer 
resident. Mr. Blockey's reply to this was that they were 
not attempting to naturalize the Storks in Britain ; they 
wished to see how they would behave, and were continuing 
the German experiments at the request of the Germans 
themselves. Mr. Blockey agreed with Mr. Jourdain's state- 
ment " That young Storks reared here would return is im- 
probable," but added that they still might do so, and if they 
returned to their place of hatching in East Prussia, when 
mature in 1939, it would be just as interesting. 

Mr. Jourdain had laid great stress on the lack of considera- 
tion exhibited in the experiment of placing Stork's eggs in 
Herons' nests, quoting the difficulties attendant on the 
differences in breeding season, size and colour of eggs, and 
incubation period, and the different feeding habits of the birds. 
To this Mr. Blockey had replied that the Herons proved perfect 
fosterers and were not worried in the slightest by the size and 
colour of the eggs. With regard to the differences in breeding 
season, many Herons have not laid by mid- May, as, for example, 
at the place in Kent where the eggs were placed. 

Mr. Jourdain's statement that " Such essential differences 
between birds of different genera and families point to probable 
failure, and, in fact, this actually resulted and subsequently 
young birds were imported," is not quite correct, for one Stork 
had hatched out in 1937 and lived for sixteen days, and another 
had hatched in 1 936 and lived for about six days . Miss Barclay- 
Smith also pointed out that the egg experiment was entirely 
subsidiary to the young bird experiment, and the latter 
was not undertaken because the former had not been a com- 
plete success. It had been decided to import young birds 
even before the idea of placing eggs under Herons had been 
thought of. 

Mr. Jourdain had also drawn attention to the Stork's dis- 
like of crossing large stretches of water, and had stated " It 
would have been far more likely that birds liberated in East 
Anglia would cross the straits of Dover (21 miles) than that 
birds from Dumfries should cross the Channel where it is about 
60 miles wide." Miss Barclay- Smith said Mr. Jourdain 
was apparently unaware that the birds were released at a place 

Vol. lviii.] 58 [1938. 

in Kent which is just as good, or even better, than East 
Anglia. He had inferred that all of them were liberated in 
Dumfries — only four were ; the other nineteen were brought up 
in Kent. Mr. Blockey had stated that two of the birds crossed 
to France from the Isle of Wight on October 6, 1936, and were 
shot immediately on arrival ; eight others were last seen in 
Cornwall on October 8. 

Mr. Jourdain had also stated that " Birds should only be 
liberated where their natural food is abundant, and rabbits 
and mackerel are not the natural food of the White Stork." 
To this Mr. Blockey 's comment was " We had several reports 
from eye-witnesses who watched the young Storks after they 
had left their ' rearing-place,' wandering about on stubble- 
fields, etc., feeding quite happily — apparently on crane-fly 
larvse. There was plenty of natural food around their 
' rearing place.' We were throughout in the closest touch 
with Rossitten, and they gave us every bit of information 
they could. Mr. Blackburne made a special trip over there 
shortly before the young were sent over. Nothing went wrong 
with the rearing ; all flew quite successfully, bar one which 
flew into some wire and had to be destroyed. They were 
naturally very tame, and this fact led people to think when 
they arrived on the Isle of Wight that they were starving,, 
because they would take food almost out of one's hand." 

Miss Barclay-Smith stated that an account of the whole 
experiment would shortly be published in ' Vogelzug.' 

In reply Mr. Jourdain stated : — 

His criticisms had not been directed against the importa- 
tion of half-grown birds, but against the placing of eggs 
in Herons' nests. No advice on this point was given by 
the Rossitten authorities nor had they ever experimented 
on these lines. The result was that in two years twenty eggs 
of Storks came to grief and an equal number of Herons' eggs 
were displaced to make room for them. Two birds survived 
for a time, as Miss Barclay- Smith has just said, one for about 
a week and the other a fortnight. As not a single bird was 
reared the experiment proved a failure. The other point 
criticized was placing some young birds on the west side of Great 
Britain. That only two succeeded in crossing the Channel 
from the Isle of Wight seems to support this view. Birds 

1938.] 59 [Vol. iviii. 

accustomed to feed themselves in a marsh would naturally 
stand a much better chance of surviving the journey across 
western France than domesticated birds brought up on food 
which might be cheap and effective in a zoo, but would 
render the birds dependent on human aid. He was quite 
aware that the Dumfries -shire birds were not the only ones 
liberated, as this was common knowledge. Since the meeting 
a letter has been received from Dr. Schtiz in which he states 
that the suggestion of placing the eggs in Herons' nests 
emanated from Mr. Blackburne and not from Rossitten. 

Mr. D. Seth- Smith remarked : — 

With regard to the food given to the young Storks, which 
Mr. Jourdain evidently considers very unsuitable, I can 
only say that, as it would be impossible to procure sufficient 
frogs, mice, insects, and worms, the best substitute would 
be meat and fish, which was, in fact, used. The young birds 
would soon learn how to capture their natural food once they 
were reared. 

Dr. J. M. Derscheid sent the following description of a new 
species of Teal from South America : — 

A few weeks ago my friend, Mr. D. G. Schuyl, the well- 
known Dutch aviculturist, received in Rotterdam from 
South America a small consignment of Ducks which were at 
first identified as Brazilian Teal (Amazonetta b7asiliensis Gm.) 
inasmuch as they were in very ragged plumage and rather 
poor condition after their voyage. 

Some of them promptly died, but the remaining ones 
improved rapidly, so that it is now quite evident that they 
are different enough from any other known species to justify 
their .description as a supposed new kind of Anatidse. 

Their marked affinity to the Brazilian Teal is still evident, 
but the differences are too numerous to allow us to consider 
the new form as simply a subspecies or local race of 
A. brasiliensis. 

I must point out that the affinities of the Brazilian Teal 
are still obscure, and that in 1929 Dr. H. von Boetticher 
established for that species the monotypic genus Amazonetta 
(antedating the subgenus Aixopsis created in 1936 by Delacour 
to the same effect). 

Vol. lviii.] 60 [1938. 

The new Teal is a sister-species to Amazonetta brasiliensis 
Gmel., for which I propose the name of 

Amazonetta vittata, sp. nov. Schuyl's Teal. 

Description. — (Adult male). Larger than A. brasiliensis ; 
if the latter species be compared in size and bulk to the 
European Garganey the new Teal is definitely superior in 
size to the Baikal Teal (Nettion formosum). 

Forehead and anterior part of cheeks pale chestnut- brown 
in A. brasiliensis; black in A. vittata, with only a brownish 
tinge on the cheeks. 

The top of head is black in A . vittata ; blackish in A . brasilien- 
sis. Posterior part of cheeks and side of head a pale yellowish- 
grey, mixed with buff spots, in A. brasiliensis; silvery-grey 
without any admixture of buff in A. vittata. 

The rear of the neck shows in the Brazilian Teal a black 
spot, with metallic -green sheen, merging more or less gradually 
above in the colour of the occiput, but abruptly separated 
behind from the pale brown of the mantle. In Schuyl's Teal 
the green-shining deep black of the nape merges as well in 
the general blackish colour above and behind it. 

In A. brasiliensis the upper breast is pale chestnut- 
brown, with blackish- brown rounded spots. In A. vittata 
we notice first a black collar under which the feathers show 
transversal black and white bars or stripes on a general 
background of rather bright chestnut-brown. 

The lower breast in A. brasiliensis is greyish buff, without 
any white, but a few obsolete dark spots ; in A. vittata we 
find the same striped appearance as in the upper breast, but 
the ground-colour is pure white without a chestnut tinge. 
The abdomen and under tail- coverts are greyish- buff in 
A. brasiliensis ; blackish-grey in A. vittata. 

The fourteen rectrices are in both forms of the same black 
colour with a green sheen, but in the live specimens studied 
I noticed a marked difference in shape, the tips being much 
more pointed in A . brasiliensis and more rounded in A . vittata ; 
this distinction, however, may be only an individual or casual 

A very marked difference is to be noticed in the feathers 

1938.] 61 [Vol. lviii. 

of the rump and sides of the body. In the Brazilian Teal 
drake we find pale brownish flank- feathers, between which 
appears a very sharply defined saddle or rump-patch of 
velvety- black colour with a greenish- blue reflection. The 
middle of the back and rump is of the same colour and sheen 
in Schuyl's Teal, but the sides are also black or blackish, so that 
the transition is quite gradual with the colour of the middle 
parts. The same applies to the colour of the mantle, pale 
olive-brown in the Brazilian species, but velvet -blackish 
in the new Teal. This gives to the latter bird its prominent 
specific character — together with its larger size — when seen 
from a distance. 

Female. — The Schuyl's Teal is also a larger, stouter, and 
darker bird in general appearance than the duck Brazilian 
Teal. Noticeable differences are the larger extent of the white 
spots on the face, especially on the chin. The bird has also 
definite transversal dark stripes on the breast and sides, 
instead of the uniform olive- buff with small round dark spots 
found in the female A. brasiliensis. The upper parts of breast 
are a rich chestnut-brown, the lower parts whitish. 

Soft parts. — As in the typical species, the iris is dark brown, 
but the colour of the upper mandible is rather orange-red, 
against the carmine-red or dark pinkish of A . brasiliensis (male). 
In both forms the nail (or tip) of the bill is horny- brown, 
more greyish in A. vittata, but the actual shape of the nail 
differs somewhat in its posterior edge, being rather rounded 
in A. brasiliensis and more angular in A. vittata. 

The coral-red colour of the feet is more pinkish in the 
Brazilian species, more orange-red in A. vittata. 

Distribution. — Argentine Republic, south of Buenos Ayres ; 
probably coastal districts. 

Type. — The above description is taken from live birds of 
both species, the types of the new Amazonetta vittata being 
at present in my possession. 

Measurements. — The total length seems well above 17 inches, 
which appears to be the maximum size of the Brazilian Teal. 
Culmen a little less than 2 inches, versus 1-75 in Brazilian 

Remarks. — The general distribution of A. brasiliensis 

Vol.lviii.] 62 [1938. 

includes most of South America, from " New Granada and 
Guiana to Magellan Straits " (Salvadori) ; however, it is 
possible that the specimens identified as such and originating 
from the most southerly parts of that range should be included 
in the new species. 

Dr. J. M. Derscheid also sent the following note on the 
systematic position of Amazonetta and Calonetta : — 

Having studied for years the behaviour of both the ordinary 
Brazilian Teal and of the Ring-necked Teal in captivity, 
Mr. Schuyl and myself have been impressed by the identity 
in the display of these two species during the breeding season. 

However, Monsieur J. Delacour, in his recent and most 
interesting study on the classification of the Anatidse, has 
emphasized some likeness between the Brazilian Teal and his 
Cairininse or " Perching Ducks," making to that effect his new 
genus "Aizopsis " (= Amazonetta v. Boetticher). On the other 
hand, the Ring-necked Teal is retained in the subfamily of 
Anatinse, or true surface-feeding Ducks, but in a special 
subgenus of its own, Calonetta (type Anas leucophrys Vieillot= 
Nettion torquatum). 

Dr. von Boetticher has already (1937) expressed his opinion 
that these two small South American Teals are too nearly 
related to be separated in distinct subfamilies ; he reminds us 
that these birds sometimes interbreed. 

If we notice that the Ring-necked Teal shares with the 
Brazilian Teal and with the species here described the characters 
of having black- shouldered wings in both sexes (quite unique 
among Teals), uniformly light- coloured cheeks in the males 
and white-spotted faces in the females, different colouring 
of bill and feet (at least in the females), small size, and perching 
habits, we cannot help thinking that they must be nearly 
related. For years we have both made a close study of the 
Brazilian Teal and of the Ring-necked Teal in captivity, 
without finding any serious difference in their behaviour. 
Moreover, their geographical distribution seems to us a serious 
confirmation of their relationship. We must confess that we 
fail to see any — even distant — likeness between the Ring- 
necked Teal and the Pochards (Nyrocinse), as suggested by 

1938.] 63 [Vol. Mii. 

Delacour, but it is quite possible that he is right in suspecting 
a possibly close affinity between our Ring-necked Teal and the 
little -known Heteronetta atricapilla. 

After close inspection of both species of Amazonetta I fail 
likewise to be impressed by the alleged length of the tail 
or anterior position of the leg, so that I do not feel that the 
Brazilian Teal and its congeners should be considered as closer 
relations to the genus Aix (Carolina and Mandarin Ducks) 
than, for instance, the Australian Maned Goose (Ghenonetta 

In conclusion, I think that the Neotropical Teals mentioned 
above should be considered as belonging to one and the same 
genus, let us say the " Black- winged Teals" {Amazonetta), 
just as we have the (chiefly Holarctic) Blue- winged Teals 
(Querquedula querquedula, Q. discors, Q. cyanoptera, and 
probably all the Shovellers). 

The generic characters of Amazonetta would thus be : 
velvety-black shoulders, metallic-green speculum, sexual 
dimorphism, no eclipse, white-spotted facial pattern in females, 
tail rather long and wide, perching habits, and probably 
similar nesting habits (in holes). 

The term Calonetta could be retained as subgeneric for 
the Ring-necked Teal characterized by white axillary feathers, 
blue bill in male, and the peculiar position of the white wing- 
patch on the greater wing- coverts in both sexes. 

Only species : Amazonetta {Calonetta) leucophrys Vieillot, 
1816 (Paraguay). The true Amazonetta would then include 
the two other species, viz. : — The Brazilian Teal {Amazonetta 
brasiliensis Gmelin, 1779) (Brazil) and Schuyl's Teal (Ama- 
zonetta vittata Derscheid) (Argentine, S. of Buenos Ayres). 

I hope to be able, in the near future, to give some details 
of the behaviour and perhaps the breeding habits of the last- 
named bird in captivity. 

Mr. Gregory M. Mathews sent the following description 
of a new subspecies of Shallow-forktailed Petrel : — 

Cymochorea castro kumagai, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Differs from G. castro cryptoleucura in its 
general smaller measurements, the average of twenty-six 

Vol. lviii.] 64 [1938. 

skins of both sexes being: wing 151-3; tail 73*5; culmen 
15-1 ; tarsus 21-5 ; middle toe and claw 23-1 mm. 

Distribution. — Japan and adjacent waters. 

Type. — A male in my collection, collected by Mr. S. Kumagai, 
in July 1936, at Hideshima, Hondo, Japan. 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 151 ; tail 70 ; culmen 15 ; 
tarsus 21 ; middle toe and claw 22 mm. 

Young. — Greyish-black ; the white upper tail-coverts 
appear as the down wears off. 

Nest. — The nesting burrows measure at their entrance 
from between 61-124 by 33-5-81 mm. Average measurement 
of thirty being 98 by 74 mm. 

Egg. — Clutch one : white with or without reddish-brown 
spots at the larger end. The average measurements of eighteen 
eggs being 33 by 24 : the extremes are 33 X 23-2 ; 32 x 25 and 

Length of incubation. — About thirty days. 

Breeding season. — July 7 to August 4, when the young were 
piping. No eggs seen on September 4. 

Breeding locality. — Hideshima and Sanganjima, Hondo, 

Remarks. — I am much obliged to Dr. Kuroda for his trans- 
lation of Kumagai 's article on the above form, taken from 
' Tori,' no. 42, May 1936. 

Mr. R. E. Moreau sent the following description of a new 
subspecies : — 

Erythropygia barbata greenwayi, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Larger and less red-brown than either 
E. b. quadrivirgata Reichenow or E. b. rovumse Grote ; and 
having the head, mantle, wing-coverts, and inner secondaries 
greyer ; and the rump, breast, and flanks paler. 

Distribution. — The thick bush on Mafia Island. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Collected 
by an African, Charles, on Mafia Island, Tanganyika Territory, 
on August 11, 1937. Collector's no. 4316. Brit. Mus. Reg. 
no. 1938.1.4.1. 

Measurements. — Wing 89, culmen 19, tail 82 mm. 

1938.] 65 [Vol. lviii. 

Remarks. — Herr Hermann Grote has very kindly compared 
the Mafia bird with the East African specimens in the Berlin 
Museum. He finds that it is " much greyer " than any of 
them, and notes also its outstanding size. The new subspecies 
is named in honour of Mr. J. P. Green way, of the East African 
Agricultural Research Station, who during a recent botanical 
survey on Mafia interested himself in obtaining a collection 
of birds from that neglected island. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following descriptions of two new races : — 

(1) Colius striatus rhodesise, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Similar in colour and size to Colius striatus 
minor Cabanis ; but has the feet and toes rose-pink instead of 
dark wine -colour. 

Distribution. — Chirinda and Umtali, eastern Southern 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult Male. Umtali, 
Southern Rhodesia, collected by A. W. Vincent on February 20, 
1935 (Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1937.1.15.2.) 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 91 ; culmen 13 ; tail 203 ; 
tarsus 21 mm. 

Soft parts of Type. — Iris dark brown ; bill, upper mandible 
black, lower white horn ; feet rose-pink. 

Remarks. — The sixteen specimens of this new race in the 
British Museum collection had been placed under Colius 
striatus minor. 

(2) Lybius leucoeephalus lynesi, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Similar to Lybius leucoeephalus albicauda 
Shelley, but has the basal half of the tail black, and usually 
a greater extent of white on the breast and upper belly. 

Distribution. — The Dodoma and Iringa Districts of Tan- 
ganyika Territory. 

Type. — In the British Museum, no. 2553, Iringa, Tanganyika 
Territory, January 13, 1932, collected by Admiral H. Lynes 
(Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1932.5.10.208). 

Measurements of Type, — Wing 98 ; culmen 25 ; tail 55 ; 
tarsus 25 mm. 

Vol. lviii.] 66 [1938. 

Remarks. — We agree with Lynes, J. f. 0. 1934, p. 64, as to 
the subspecific arrangement of these black and white Barbets. 
On p. 65, under L. senex, "Below, all black" is an obvious 
mistake for Below, all white. 

The series in the British Museum shows that L.l. albicauda 
has an all white tail in the adult and a pied tail in the young 
bird ; and that L.l. lynesi has a pied tail in the adult and an 
all black tail in the young bird. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
also sent the following three notes : — 

(1) On the Distribution of Golius leucocephalus leucocephalus 
Reichenow, Orn. Cent. 1879, p. 114 : Kinakomba, 
Tana River, eastern Kenya Colony, and Golius leuco- 
cephalus turneri van Someren, Bull. B. O. C, xl. 1919, 
p. 27 : Archer's Post, northern Guaso Nyiro, Kenya 
Sclater, Syst. Av. ^Ethiop. i. 1924, p. 266, gives the distribu- 
tion of G. I. leucocephalus as country south of Kilimanjaro. 
Friedmann, Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. Mus. 1930, p. 330, points out 
that Sclater " leaves the type-locality stranded " outside his 
distributional area. Van Someren has incorrectly stated 
in Nov. Zool. xxix. 1922, p. 71, that the range of the typical 
bird is the Teita country and south of Kilimanjaro. 

Our study of the question and the specimens in the British 
Museum collection shows that actually the typical bird is 
confined to a narrow area, and that the race has a wide distri- 
bution, as follows : — 

Colius leucocephalus leucocephalus Reichenow. 

Distribution. ^Eastern Kenya Colony, i. e , the valley of 
the Tana River (Kinakomba), to the eastern Guaso Nyiro 
(Lugwa, 60 miles west of the Lorian Swamp, and the Lorian 
Swamp area). 

Colius leucocephalus turneri van Someren. 

Distribution. — North-western Italian Somaliland to western 
and southern Kenya Colony and north-eastern Tanganyika 

1938.] 67 [Vol. Iviii. 

(2) On the Status oi Lybius tsanse (0. Grant), Bull. B. O. C. xiii. 

1902, p. 29 : Zegi, Lake Tana, north-western Abys- 
This is treated as a species in the Syst. Av. iEthiop. i. 1924, 
p. 274, and Cheesman and Sclater, Ibis, 1935, p. 327, remarks 
on the fact that the former did not obtain specimens of it. 
We have carefully compared the type, which is in the British 
Museum, with a series of adult Lybius undatus undatus Ruppell, 
and with young birds of Lybius undatus Salvador ii Neumann, 
L. u. thiogaster Neumann, and L. u. leucogenys Blundell and 
Lovat, and there is no doubt whatever that it is a young bird 
having a wholly black forehead. Therefore Lybius tsanse 
O. Grant becomes a synonym of Lybius undatus undatus 
(Rlippell), N. Wirbelth. Vog. 1837, pp. 52, 62, pi. 20 : Simien 
Province, northern Abyssinia. 

(3) On the Type-locality of Lybius guifsobalito Hermann. 

All authors give Abyssinia only. Hermann, Tab. Aff. 
Anim. 1783, p. 217, note, states that the specimen on which 
this name was founded was collected by Bruce. Bruce 
('Source of the Nile,' vols, i.-v., 1813) travelled from Massawa 
to the Abbai and thence to Sennar. The type-locality of 
Lybius guifsobalito Hermann can be fixed as northern 

5, L. i 



> 9 \i£tP BULLETIN 

9 r^ 




The four-hundred-and-sixth Meeting of the Club was held 
at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, 
February 9, 1938. 

Chairman : Mr. G. M. Mathews. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; Dr. D. Bannerman ; 
Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; F. J. F. Barrington ; Mrs. E. S. 
Charles ; Hon. G. L. Charteris ; J. Delacour ; Miss J. M. 
Ferrier ; H. A. Gilbert ; Miss E. M. Godman ; Capt. C. H. B. 
Grant (Editor) ; B. Guy Harrison ; Dr. J. M. Harrison ; 
R. E. Heath ; Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain ; N. B. Kinnear ; 
Miss E. P. Leach ; Dr. P. R. Lowe ; Rear-Admiral H. 
Lynes ; C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; J. H. McNeile ; 
Lieut.-Col. H. A. F. Magrath ; Dr. P. H. Manson-Bahr ; 
J. G. Mavrogordato ; C. Oldham ; H. J. R. Pease ; 
H. Leyborne Popham ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; Dr. B. B. 
Riviere ; D. Seth-Smith ; Major A. G. L. Sladen (Hen. 
Treas.) ; Col. R. Sparrow (Vice-Chairman) ; C. R. Stonor ; 
Marquess of Tavistock ; Miss D. L. Taylor ; Dr. A. Lands- 
borough Thomson (Hon. Sec.) ; B. W. Tucker ; Miss E. L. 
Turner ; Mrs. H. W. Boyd Watt ; C. M. N. White ; H. F. 


Guests :— Mrs. H. A. Gilbert ; Miss C. E. Godman ; A. C. 
Howard ; S. Jenyns ; Hon. Sholto Mackenzie ; Mrs. 
Mackworth-Praed ; Mrs. B. B. Riviere; L. S. V. Venables. 

Members, 43 ; Guests, 8. 
[March 4, 1938.] « VOL . LvnI 

Vol. lviii.] 70 [1938. 

Dr. P. Manson-Bahr exhibited the tarsus of a Snipe shot 
in Yorkshire on January 26, 1938, and remarked : — 

The bird must have been wounded in the previous year and 
had survived. When killed it was in excellent condition. 
The tarsus had been almost severed and had joined up by 
a bridge of tissue ; it was a remarkable example of nature's 

M. Jean Delacour gave the following short account of 
his recent cruise with Lord Moyne on the yacht ' Rosaura ' : — 

We visited Central and S. America and some of the Bahamas, 
Cap Haitien, the northern coast of Jamaica, Grand Cayman, 
Swan Island, and the Bay Islands of Honduras, the last 
two at some length, and collections were made. 

From Belize, British Honduras, the party flew to Yucatan 
and Guatemala. In this last country they were lucky enough 
to watch Quetzals, at an elevation of 7000 feet, near Chichi- 
castenango, on a very cold morning — a heavy frost had been 
experienced at night. Three birds crossed the road and settled 
in some pine trees, where they moved about in the same way 
as other Trogons. 

The Panama Canal was next visited, including the delightful 
natural reserve of Barro Colorado Island. A few days were 
spent in Venezuela, Granada, Tobago, and Trinidad. On Little 
Tobago, among the very fine vegetation of the hills, several of 
the introduced Greater Birds of Paradise were seen and many 
more heard. A particularly fine cock was displaying high up 
in a tree and quarrelling with two Giant Cassiques. It is 
nearly 36 years ago that this introduction was effected, and 
it can be considered a success. Motmots and Sugar-Birds 
(Ccereba) are extraordinarily abundant and tame on the island, 
but the Birds of Paradise remain very wild. 

A ten days' stay in British Guiana, particularly at Kaieteur 
Falls and up the Barima River, proved very interesting. 

The yacht also called at Para and at Pernambuco and also 
at St. Paul Rocks, in the middle of the Atlantic, where the 
two species of Anous and Sula leucogaster live and breed, 

1938.] 71 [Vol. lviii. 

In Africa the Gambia River proved very attractive with 
its large bird population. 

The party left ' Rosaura ' at Dakar, travelling overland 
by car, through Senegal and the French Sudan, to Gao, 
a long but interesting trip. Bird life was plentiful, the 
Bustards being particularly numerous. Several Saville's 
Bustards, among others, were seen and one collected. The 
Sahara desert was crossed in motors and the party flew home 
from Colomb-Bechar. 

M. Jean Delacour, Secretary of the IX. International 
Ornithological Congress, announced that preparations are 
being actively made and that the Congress will be well attended. 
Members are requested to call at the registration office, 
Hotel des Societes Savantes, rue St. L6, Rouen, on the after- 
noon of Sunday, May 8, or the morning of Monday, May 9, 
where they may pay their registration fees and will receive 
their badges, invitations, programmes, etc. All arrange- 
ments for travel, hotel reservations, and excursions are in 
the hands of Messrs. Wagons Lits/Cook, and very great 
reductions on all rates have been obtained for members of 
the Congress. From London to Rouen, Paris, the Carmargue, 
and return the inclusive cost will amount to about £15 to £22 
per person, according to class of travel and hotel. Members 
are advised to communicate with Messrs. Thomas Cook, 
Berkeley Street, London, W. 1, giving as reference P.O.D. 
8449/NS. A circular giving particulars is included in the 
' Bulletin.' M. Delacour particularly requests that all 
intending to become members of the Congress shall send 
their names to him at Chateau de Cleres, Seine Inferieure, 
France, as soon as possible, as this will greatly facilitate 
the organization of the Congress. 

Mr. Hugh Birckhead sent the following change of name : — 

In my recent paper on the birds of the Sage- West China 

Expedition I gave the name Urocissa erythrorhyncha cserulea 

to a new race from north-western Yunnan. This name 

Vol. lviii.] 72 [1938. 

is unfortunately preoccupied, and I therefore propose 

Urocissa erythrorhyncha alticola, nom nov., 

for Urocissa erythrorhyncha caeruleu Birckhead, ' American 
Museum Novitates,' no. 966, 1937, p. 13 ; not Urocissa cserulea 
Gould (Formosa), P. Z. S. 1862, p. 282. 

Mr. C. M. N. White sent the following note on Coracina 
novwhollandise (Gm.) : — 

Study of the available material, together with the literature, 
seems to show that no comprehensive examination of the 
whole range of this Cuckoo- Shrike has been made. From 
my work upon it I can only define two races. 

Coracina nov^hollandle novjehollandle (Gm.). 

Turdus novwhollandise Gmelin, Syst. Nat. i. pt. ii. 1789, 
p. 814: Nova Hollandia= Adventure Bay, Tasmania, of which 
Coracina melanops tasmanica Mathews, Bull. B. O. C. xxvii. 
1911, p. 100: Tasmania, is a synonym. 

Characters. — Bill much smaller and shorter — length from 
anterior edge of nostril to tip 14-16 mm., once 17 mm. (nine 
measured). Wing of 3^, 197-207; 2??, 186, 193; 
4 unsexed, 197-205 mm. 

In Tasmania mainly a resident, with local movements and 
flocking in winter, as shown by Littler. It breeds there 
from October to December. Sporadic movements to the 
adjacent mainland occur, as shown by examples from Victoria 
(9 imm., Caldermeade, 11. i v.) and from South Australia. 
Mathews quotes A. G. Campbell that some from Port Phillip 
were of this race, and Mellor and Whice that birds from 
Flinders Island were likewise C. n. novsehollandize. There is 
no evidence that this race breeds on the mainland, and the 
absence of material of it from farther north indicates that its 
migrations are slight and perhaps irregular. 

There is one exception, an example from Dorawaida, 
S.E. New Guinea (Aug. 1903; coll. by F. R. Barton). This 
is a small- billed bird with a wing of 174 mm. Mayr and 
Rand (Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist, lxxvii. 1937, p. 100) 
record a male from Port Moresby in October which had 

1938.] 73 (Vol. lviii. 

a very small bill and was dark in colour — wing 182 mm. 
The Dorawaida bird has a rather dark breast, and in view of the 
slight migration of C. n. novashollandice it is very difficult to 
treat them as stragglers of that race. In addition they are 
very small and rather dark. I believe they may represent 
an unnamed race resident in New Guinea. 

Range. — Tasmania, where mainly resident, Flinders Island, 
and with some migration to adjacent area of Victoria and 
S. Australia. A very similar bird has been recorded in New 


Corvus melanops Latham, Index Orn. Suppl. p. 24, 1801 : 

Synonyms are : — Goracina n. weslrahnsis Mathews, Nov. 
Zool. xviii. 1912, p. 326 : Wilson's Inlet, S.W. Australia ; 
G. n. conneclens id., ib. : Inkerman, Queensland; C. n. sub- 
pallida id., ib. : Strelly River, N.W.Australia ; G. n. didimus 
id., Austr. Av. Rec.,p. 42 : Melville Island; C. n. kuehni 
Hartert, Bull. B. 0. C. xxxvi. 1916, p. 65 : TuaL Little Key 

Characters. — Bill much larger and stronger — length 17- 
21 mm. Wing : 10 <?<?, 195-209 mm. ; 10 ?$, 190-205 mm. 
Unsexed birds vary from 193 to 207 mm. Females resemble 
males, but average smaller. Immatures run from 180 to 
195 mm., larger birds mostly males. The above series includes 
birds from Victoria, New South Wales, S. Australia, S.W. 
Australia, and Queensland. I cannot find any characters 
to subdivide this series ; some individuals from S.W. Australia 
look rather pale, but it is not constant, and may be partly 
due to bleaching. 

In Eastern Australia, though present throughout the year, 
it is much more numerous in spring and summer (cf. North). 
Breeding occurs September-December, and there is informa- 
tion of a northward movement of many birds. In S.W. 
Australia Alexander recorded it as resident on the Swan River, 
breeding also September-November. In Queensland Campbell 
and Barnard state that they first noted it in July, and at 
Cape York and the Gulf of Carpentaria Macgillivray found 

Vol. lviii.] 74 [1938. 

it only in winter. It seems, therefore, that in N. Queensland 
and the Gulf it is only a winter visitor or passage-migrant. 

In N.W. Australia Rogers recorded it as resident in the 
Kimberley area and Carter found it breeding on the Gascoyne 
River in July and August. Hartert examined birds in 
April from the South Alligator River andNullgine, and thought 
the latter very pale. Mathews described G. n. subpallida 
as small and pale. I have seen a male from the Gascoyne River 
(wing 190) which is very pale, and a female from Victoria River, 
N.W. Australia (wing 186 mm.), which might support this. 
Unfortunately another female has a wing of 195 and an 
immature bird 193 mm. All are rather badly worn, which may 
account for their colour. The larger birds may be migrants, 
the smaller a breeding race, but from my material I can only 
indicate the probable characters, and do not therefore uphold 
the race. G. n. didimus is merely described from an immature. 

Outside Australia the species occurs as a winter migrant. 
This was clearly pointed out by Stresemann (Nov. Zool. xxi. 
1914, p. 122), but Hartert in naming G. n. kuehni in 1916 
ignores his remarks. The type of G. n. kuehni was obtained 
1. x. 97, and was thought to occur in the Key Islands, Tiandu, 
Taam, Sula Besi, and Aru Islands. I have seen Aru Islands 
birds which do not support it, and I do not think its supposed 
characters of any value. I have analyzed in all dates of about 
100 birds (either examined or from literature) from the 
extra- Australian range. Mayr and Rand (I. c.) quote May 17 to 
October 13 as their range of dates from S.E. New Guinea, 
and this would cover the above dates very well. There are 
exceptions : Luang, Moa, Letti (all November), but many of 
these are immatures, as pointed out by Stresemann ; Taam 
(2 adults, February), which might be evidence to support 
G. n. kuehni or might be merely very early migrants. Eichhorn 
recorded it as first appearing at Talasea,New Britain, in April, 
and collected it in June at Witu. In Damar, where one was 
collected during the voyage of the ' Penguin,' Kiihn specifically 
records that he did not see it in November-December. I think 
all the evidence points, therefore, to its being only a winter 

1938.] 75 [Vol. lviii. 

Range. — Breeds in Australia, except N. Queensland ; resident 
in western part, partly migratory in east. Winter quarters : — 
New Guinea, Louisiade, and d'Entrecasteaux Islands, Misol, 
Waigeu, Aru Islands, Key Islands, Timor- laut, So nth -East 
and South- West Islands, Timor, Sumba, Flores, Madu, Seran, 
Amboina, Sula, Peling, New Britain, and adjacent islands ; 
straggler to New Zealand. 

Note on plumages. 

Stresemann (I. c.) discussed these and concluded that the 
adults were alike. This followed North and others and 
contradicted Salvadori and Reichenow. Since then, however, 
it appears that the view that the female resembles the im- 
mature has revived Hartert recorded the type of C. n. 
kuehni as " <J [not 2 !] ad.," which indicates that he dis- 
agreed with the sexing, and Mayr and Rand (I. c.) doubt the 
sexing of their birds and state that they cannot work out the 
difference between females and immatures of either sex, which 
can only mean that they thought these were alike. There are, 
however, too many birds with black throats sexed as 
females for this to be purely an error, and these females 
average smaller. 

The immature exhibits great variation in the colour of the 
throat, which may be nearly uniform white, white with grey 
bars, grey with lighter bars, or even dusky with lighter bars. 
Only the ear- coverts, orbital area, and lores are black. Five 
birds show that this is moulted directly to the adult plumage. 

There are also two peculiar individuals which represent 
probably an " advanced " immature plumage. One is from 
Victoria ; the front shows some development of black feathers 
and the cheeks and throat are suffused with blackish-grey, 
with no white barring. Thus it resembles very closely the 
adult, but is not so deep black. The other is from St. Aignan 
Island (August), and is similar but rather greyer on the throat 
and face. Both have the base of the bill brownish, as in 
immatures, and in view of the variation in immatures I think 
it better to treat these birds as an advanced phase of immature 
plumage. Neither is moulting. I cannot separate the sexes 
of immatures, except sometimes by size, 

Vol. lviii.] 76 [1938. 

Dr. David A. Bannerman sent the following description of 
a new race of the Grey Cuckoo- Shrike : — 

Coracina caesia okuensis, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Differs from G. c. preussi in the more sooty- 
grey coloration of the whole plumage in both sexes ; the 
entire throat of the male is black, which colour overspreads 
the upper part of the breast. Eye brownish-black, bill and 
feet black. 

Distribution. — Restricted to the Oku district (c. 7000 feet) 
of the Cameroon highlands ; another race, C. c. preussi, 
taking its place at lower altitudes. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male : Oku, west 
of Kumbo, Cameroons (7000 feet), February 14, 1925 ; col- 
lected by G. L. Bates. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1926.8.8.611. 

Measurements. — Bill, male 15, female 14 ; wing, male 117, 
female 112 ; tail 100 ; tarsus 22 mm. 

Remarks. — This is one of several species represented by 
a local race in the wooded ravines of the Oku district, all 
exhibiting the same sombre colouring. 

Mr. N. B. KiNnear forwarded the following description 
of a new Babbler collected by Messrs. Ludlow and Sherriff 
in S.E. Tibet :— 

Babax lanceolatus lumsdeni, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Very similar to B. I. waddelli Dresser, but with 
a smaller bill and generally darker on the upper side ; the 
shaft- streaks of the feathers on the underparts are much 
darker, almost blackish-brown, and the margins greyer, 
lacking the bufnsh tinge. 

Distribution. — S.E. Tibet between the Subansiri River and 
the Tsangpo River, long. 92' 50" and 94'. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male : Le La, between 
Chayul Dzong and Charme, in the Charme District, S.E. 
Tibet, May 7, 1936 ; collected by Messrs. F. Ludlow and 
G. Sherriff. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1937.1.17.240. 

Measurements . — 

2 &£, 136-137 ; bill from skull 34-3-36 mm. 

2 99, 131-133 ; bill from skull 31-34-5 mm. 

1938.] 77 [Vol. Iviii. 

B.l. ivaddelli : 
3 #(?, 130-142 ; bill from skull 38-39 mm. 
5' $o ; 128-135 ; bill from skull 36-39 mm. 

Remarks. — Specimens examined : four adults and two 
juveniles of B. I. lumsdeni and eight specimens of B. I. waddelli 
from Gyantse. There is also one specimen in the Museum 
collected by Col. F. M. Bailey in August 1931 at Luti, 10,000 feet, 
on the Tsangpo. 

Named in honour of Dr. K. Lumsden, who accompanied 
Messrs. Ludlow and SherrifF. 

Mr. N. B. Kinnear also sent the following communication 
on the occurrence of the Cape Bittern (Botaurus stellaris 
capensis Schlegel) in Northern Rhodesia : — 

Through the kindness of Capt. C. R. P. Henderson the 
Museum has received a skin of the above bird from Matonga 
Island, Bangweolo Swamps, Northern Rhodesia. The bird 
was obtained by Mr. David Ross on November 28, 1937, 
who said he was informed by the natives that it was not 
numerous, and was much prized as food. 

This race does not appear to have .been recorded north of 
the Zambesi. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following note on the status of Viridibucco simplex 
(Fischer & Reichenow), J. f. O. 1884, p. 180 : Pangani River, 
north-eastern Tanganyika Territory, and Viridibucco leuco- 
mystax (Sharpe), Ibis, 1892, p. 310 : Sotik, south-western 
Kenya Colony : — 

In Syst. Av. ^thiop. i. 1924, p. 280, Sclater makes V. leuco- 
mystax a race of V. simplex ; but in ' The Ibis,' 1932, p. 663, 
inclines to the opinion that V. leucomystax is the male of 
V. simplex. Since then the British Museum has acquired 
several more specimens, so that the collection now contains 
thirteen adult males, fifteen adult females, a young male, 
and a young female of V. leucomystax, all of which have the 
white moustachial stripe, and seven specimens of V. simplex, 
one male, five females, and one unsexed, all of which have 
no moustachial stripe. 


Vol. lviii.] 78 [1938. 

This fresh evidence supports the view expressed by Lynes, 
J. f. 0. 1934, p. 66, and as both occur at Amani they must 
be treated as distinct species. The known distribution of the 
two species is as follows : — 

Viridibucco simplex (Fisch. & Reichw.). Coastal areas of 
Kenya Colony and Tanganyika Territory, between Seyidi 
Province and Central Railway line (as far inland as Amani, 
Morogoro, and Pugu Hills), south to southern Nyasaland 
(Mt. Mangoche) ; Zanzibar. 

Viridibucco leucomystax (Sharpe). From Central Kenya 
Colony through north-eastern and central Tanganyika 
Territory to western Nyasaland (Nchisi Hill, Kota Kota, 
and Dedza). 





The four-hundred-and-seventh Meeting of the Club was held 
at the house of the Royal Geographical Society, Kensington 
Gore, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, March 9, 1938, preceded by 
a Dinner at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, 
in conjunction with the Annual Dinner of the British 
Onithologists' Union. 

Dr. Percy R. Lowe, the President of the B. O. U., took 
the Chair during the Dinner, and Mr. G. M. Mathews 
Chairman of the Club, during the subsequent proceedings. 

Members of the B. 0. C. :— Miss C. M. Acland ; W. B. 
Alexander ; Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; Miss M. G. S. Best ; 
G. B. Blaker ; A. W. Boyd ; Miss B. A. Carter ; Mrs. E. 
Stafford Charles ; Hon. G. L. Charteris ; H. P. 0. 
Cleave ; A. Ezra ; Miss J. M. Ferrier ; J. M. M. Fisher ; 
H. A. Gilbert ; A. G. Glenister ; Miss E. M. Godman ; 
Capt. C. H. B. Grant (Editor) ; Mrs. T. E. Hodgkin ; Dr. K. 
Jordan ; Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain ; N. B. Kinnear ; 
J. Spedan Lewis ; Miss C. Longfield ; Dr. G. Carmichael 
Low ; Rear- Admiral H. Lynes ; C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; 
Dr. P. H. Manson-Bahr ; J. G. Mavrogordato ; Dr. W. N. 
May ; E. M. Nicholson ; C. A. Norris ; B. B. Osmaston ; 
R. H. W. Pakenham ; C. W. G. Paulson ; H. J. R. Pease ; 
Miss G. M. Rhodes ; Dr. B. B. Riviere ; W. L. Sclater ; 
Major M. H. Simonds ; Major A. G. L. Sladen (Hon. Treas.) ; 
J. W. C. Stares ; Mrs. R. Steuart ; Marquess of Tavi- 
stock ; Miss D. L. Taylor ; Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson 
[April 4, 1938,] VOL. lviii. 

Vol. lviii.] 80 [1938. 

{Hon. Sec.) ; B. W. Tucker ; Miss E. L. Turner ; W. E. 
Wait ; Mrs. H. W. Boyd Watt ; H. Whistler ; C. M. N. 
White ; H. F. Witherby ; C. de Worms. 

Members of the B. O. U. : — E. G. Bird ; J. Buxton ; 
H. G. Calkin ; H. V. Casson ; R. Chislett ; E. Cohen ; 


Donaldson ; F. H. Edmondson ; C. G. des Forges ; 
A. K. Gibbon ; J. C. Harrison ; A. G. Haworth ; Miss A. 
Hibbert-Ware ; P. F. Holmes ; E. J. Hosking ; Mrs. H. M. 
Rait Kerr ; Mrs. F. E. Lemon ; E. S. May ; D. I. Molteno ; 
A. S. Phillips ; Miss F. Pitt ; Miss D. T. Raikes ; B. B. 
Roberts ; Sir M. C. Seton ; Dr. F. G. Swayne ; I. M. 
Thomson ; N. Tracy ; Miss J. H. Wright. 

Quests of the Club : — Mrs. Seton Gordon ; H. S. Thompson ; 
G. K. Yeates. 

Guests :— Mrs. M. F. Badham ; Mrs. F. G. Bird ; E. Blatch 
W. E. Brooks ; Mr. and Mrs. R. D. Buxton ; Mrs. H. G 
Calkin ; Miss E. Carter ; S. Carter ; E. Falkland Cary 
Miss E. F. Chawner ; Mrs. R. Chislett ; Mrs. E. Cohen 
Mr. and Mrs. C. L. Collenette ; R. Collett ; Mrs. R 
Preston Donaldson ; E. Flack ; H. Gaske ; Mrs. H. A 
Gilbert ; Miss C. E. Godman ; Miss L. P. Grant ; Mrs. P 
Harrison ; Mrs. A. G. Haworth ; M. L. Horn ; A. E 
Housman ; Miss Hulse ; M. Hyndman ; C. James ; T. Jones 
Miss H. Jordan ; Miss M. Kyrle ; Miss H. G. Lemmon 
Capt. and Mrs. Stewart Liberty ; Mrs. Percy R. Lowe 
Miss Lynes ; Mrs. C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; D. H. Manson 
Bahr ; Mr. and Mrs. P. Martin ; C. M. May ; D. M. Murray 
Rust ; Dr. A. P. Norman ; C. Pease ; W. H. Perrett 
Mrs. A. S. Phillips ; Mr. and Mrs. H. A. Schubart 
Mrs. W. L. Sclater ; Miss R. Seth-Smith ; Mrs. M. H 
Simonds ; Miss D. Sleigh ; J. W. H. Stares ; Mrs. A. L 
Thomson ; Miss B. Thomson ; Miss B. Tracy ; Mrs. B. W 
Tucker ; J. Vincent ; Miss J. Wait ; F. Wallace 
H. F. Wallace ; B. Weston ; Hon. Mrs. H. Whistler 
Miss U. Wingate ; Mrs. H. F. Witherby ; R. C. F. Witherby 
Mr, and Mrs. G. de Worms. 

1938.] 81 [Vol. lviii. 

Members of the Club, 53 ; Members of the Union, 30 ; 
Guests of the Club, 3 ; Guests, 69 ; Total 155. 

Mr. E. G. Bird exhibited a film, largely in colour, of birds 
in East Greenland. This included among other characteristic 
species Phalaropes swimming, the Knot on its nest, and the 
Long- tailed Skua in flight. 

Mr. G. K. Yeates exhibited a number of slides illustrating 
the bird-life of the Camargue, with pictures of such birds as 
the Spectacled Warbler, Fan-tailed Warbler, Penduline Tit, 
Hoopoe, and Little Egret. A series of the Black-winged 
Stilt, showing the male and female changing places at the nest, 
was a notable item. 

A film by Mr. H. W. Mackworth-Praed was exhibited 
by Mr. H. A. Gilbert. This showed Ducks of various species 
at Orielton, Pembrokeshire, and the working of the decoy 

Mr. Brian Roberts exhibited slides of Antarctic birds, 
from photographs taken in Graham Land, the South Shetlands, 
South Georgia, and the Falkland Islands. Various species of 
Penguin and Petrel naturally predominated. Some pictures 
were included which showed large congregations of birds. 

Mrs. Seton Gordon exhibited a film of sea-birds — various 
Auks, Gulls, etc. — at their breeding-places on the Scottish 
and Irish coasts. It also showed a Black- throated Diver 
at its nest. 

Mr. Harry S. Thompson exhibited slides of sea-birds at 
the Fame Islands and elsewhere on the Northumbrian coast. 
The series included various species at their breeding places, 
and also such birds as Gannet and Fulmar in flight and Eider 
Ducks on the water. 

A film by Captain C. W. R. Knight, on Hawks and Hawking, 
was exhibited by Miss P. Barclay- Smith. This had been 
put together for the recent international Sporting Exhibition 
at Berlin. It included some remarkable slow-motion studies. 

Vol. lviii.] 82 [1938. 

Mr. N. B. Kinnear sent the following change of name : — 
Stachyris guttata tonkinensis, nom. nov., 

for Thringorhina guttata diluta Kinnear, Bull. B. O. C. xlv. 
p. 11, 1924 : Thai Nien, Tonkin ; not Stachyris poliocephala 
diluta Robinson & Kloss, Ibis, 1919, p. 584 : Taiping, Perak, 
Malay States. 

It is now generally accepted by most authors (see Chasen, 
Handlist, Malay, p. 220, 1935) that the genus Thringorhina 
is now included in the genus Stachyris. This being so Thringo- 
rhina guttata diluta is preoccupied by Stachyris poliocephala 

I am indebted to Mr. H. G. Deignan, of the United States 
National Museum, for drawing my attention to this. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following six notes : — 

(1) On the Status of Barbatula kandti Reichenow, O. M. 1903, 

p. 23 : Lake Kivu. 

Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. i. 1924, p. 283, in a footnote 
considers this race as doubtfully distinct from Pogoniulus 
bilineatus jacksoni (Sharpe), Bull. B. O. C. vii. 1897, p. vii : 
Mau, Kenya Colony. Through the kindness of Dr. Stresemann, 
of the Berlin Museum, we have had the loan of the type of 
B. kandti and find that it agrees perfectly with the type and 
series of B. b. jacksoni in the British Museum, and, therefore, 
B. kandti is a synonym of P. b. jacksoni. 

(2) On the Status of Barbatula leucolaima urungensis 

Reichenow, O. M. 1915, p. 91 ; Kidungulu, Urungu. 

Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. i. 1924, p. 283, has placed this 
as a race of Pogoniulus bilineatus (Sund.). Through the 
kindness of Dr. Stresemann, of the Berlin Museum, we have 
had the loan of the type of B. I. urungensis and find that 
Reichenow was right in placing it under P. leucolaima (Verr.) ; 
and that it agrees perfectly with specimens of Pogoniulus 
leucolaima nyansse (Neum.), J. f. O. 1907, p. 347 : Bukoba, 

1938.] 83 LVol. lviii. 

north-western Tanganyika Territory, in the British Museum 
collection. Therefore B. I. urungensis Reichw. becomes 
a synonym of B. I. nyansse (Neum.) and the distribution of 
the latter is from the North-eastern Belgian Congo and Uganda 
to north-western Tanganyika Territory and southern end of 
Lake Tanganyika. 

(3) On the Status of Lybius guifsobalito ugandce Berger, O. M. 

1907, p. 201 : Nimule, southern Sudan. 

Claude Grant, Ibis, 1915, p. 438, considered that this race 
could be recognised, and Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. i. 1924, 
p. 270, is also of this opinion and, therefore, does not agree 
with Van Someren's conclusions in Nov. Zool. xxix. 1922, 
p. 56. Friedmann, Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. Mus. 1930, p. 434, 
supports Van Someren, and we have, therefore, been compelled 
to re-examine the long series in the British Museum collection. 
These show that birds from Uganda have wings 81 to 85 mm. 
(including three specimens from Gulu 81 to 82) and that 
birds from Abyssinia have wings 82 to 92 mm. ; Sudan 
(Bor, Rejaf, Gondokoro) 81 to 83 mm. ; (Baro, Roseires, 
Fazogli) 81 to 88 mm. 

Therefore although the largest Abyssinian measurement is 
7 mm. longer than the largest Uganda, the smallest Abys- 
sinian measurement is only 1 mm. above the smallest Uganda 
measurement. We are, therefore, of opinion that Lybius 
guifsobalito ugandse Berger cannot be distinguished from 
the typical race, and must remain as a synonym of Lybius 
guifsobalito Hermann. 

(4) On the Status of Lybius melanopterus didymus Grote, 

O. M. 1929, p. 75 : Lake Solole, Juba River Valley, 
southern Italian Somaliland. 

The character given for this race is smaller, wing 86 to 
91 mm. Specimens from Mozambique, the typical locality 
of Lybius melanopterus (Peters), Ber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 
1854, p. 134 : Mocimboa, Mozambique, Portuguese East 
Africa, have a wing-measurement of 88 to 95 mm. This is 

Vol. lviii.] 84 [1938. 

sufficient to show that the only character given does not hold 
good, and, therefore, L. m. didymus Grote must become 
a synonym of L. melanopterus (Peters). 

(5) On the Status of Buccanodon belcheri W. L. Sclater, Bull. 

B. 0. C. xlvii. 1927, p. 85 : Cholo Mt., Southern 

A comparison and study of Buccanodon olivaceum (Shelley), 
Ibis, 1880, p. 334, pi. vii. : Rabbai, near Mombasa, and 
Buccanodon woodwardi (Shelley), Bull. B. O. C. v. p. hi, 1895 : 
Eshowe, Zululand, with the fine series of Buccanodon belcheri 
in the British Museum collection, shows that the latter must 
be included as a race of Buccanodon olivaceum, as has already 
been the case with Buccanodon woodwardi. These three 
birds bear a strong resemblance to each other, the dark crown 
is repeated in all three, and the golden green ear- coverts 
of B. woodwardi are to be found in B. belcheri. 

(6) The correct type-locality of Trachyphonus erythrocephalus 

shelleyi Hartlaub, Ibis, 1886, p. 106, pi. v. 

Under date February 7, 1938, Mr. E. Lort Phillips very 
kindly informs us that he obtained the type at the Goolis 
Mountains. The type -locality of T. e. shelleyi is, therefore, 
Goolis Mountains, British Somaliland. 

1 6 MAY 1938 





The four-hundred-and eighth Meeting of the Club was held 
at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, 
April 13, 1938. 

Chairman : Mr. G. M. Mathews. 

Members present : — Miss CM. Acland ; Dr. D. A. Bannerman ; 
Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; F. J. F. Barrington ; Miss M. G. 
Best ; Hon. Guy L. Charteris ; A. Ezra ; Miss J. M. 
Ferrier ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant (Editor) ; Dr. J. M. 
Harrison ; P. A. D. Hollom ; Dr. E. Hopkinson ; 
Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain ; Miss E. P. Leach ; Dr. G. 
Carmichael Low ; Rear- Admiral H. Lynes ; T. H. 
McKittrick ; J. H. McNeile ; Dr. P. H. Manson-Bahr ; 
J. G. Mavrogordato ; Col. R. Meinertzhagen ; C. Oldham ; 

B. B. Osmaston ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; W. L. Sclater ; 
D. Seth- Smith ; Major A. G. L. Sladen (Hon. Treas.) ; 

C. R. Stonor ; Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson (Hon. Sec.) ; 
Miss E. L. Turner ; Mrs. H. W. Boyd Watt ; H. Whistler ; 
H. F. Witherby. 

Guest of the Club : — Professor J. B. Cleland. 

Guests :— L. H. Bowen ; Miss T. Clay ; Miss C. E. 
Crompton ; Miss B. N. Solly. 

Members, 34 ; Guest of the Club, 1 ; Guests, 4. 
[May 12, 1938.] a vol. lviii. 

Vol. lviii.] 86 [1938. 

Colonel R. Meinertzhagen gave an interesting talk on his 
trip to Afghanistan, and showed some slides. 

Dr. Carmichael Low showed a series of pheasants and 
a partridge showing perversion of plumage. 

He said he did not propose to go into the full details and 
explanation, of sex reversal, as that had already been done 
by Tucker (Bull. B. O. C. xlviii. 1928, pp. 98-116) and himself 
(Bull. B. O. C. Hi. 1932, pp. 88-94). The specimens shown 
to-night formed an addition to those exhibited on February 17, 
1932 (loc. cit. p. 93), and he had also since that date examined 
the ovaries of a Cinanmon Teal {Anas cyanoptera) and a 
Tragopan (Tragopan satyra), both of which were assuming 
male plumage. 

He could not unfortunately show the skins of either of 
these as he was not given them and he did not know now 
where they were. The changes, however, he remembered 
were very striking. 

In all females showing male plumage degenerative or 
pathological changes were found in the ovary, and the idea 
was that when the ovarian hormone disappeared a testicular 
one, owing to the development of testicular tissue, took its 
place, and this resulted in the production of male feathering. 

The reverse, a male taking on female feathering, was not 
so easy to explain. Tucker (Bull. B O. C. Hi. 1932, p. 92) 
beHeves that such birds owe their pecuHarities to a partially 
hermaphroditic or gynandromorphic condition, due to an 
inherent constitutional abnormality, and that they are not 
undergoing a transformation in any way analogous to the 
transformation towards the male type which surgical or 
pathological destruction of the ovary may produce in females. 

In the list of pheasants shown on February 17, 1932, a 
male pheasant, No. 5, with some hen-like feathering, on 
dissection presented very small testicles, and these on section 
showed a considerable increase of the interstitial tissue with 
marked atrophy of the tubules. Dr. J. M. Harrison also 
exhibited two cock pheasants showing similar changes 
at the same meeting, and in both of his birds there was also 

1938.] 87 [Vol. lviii. 

an increase of the interstitial tissue when compared with 
control material. In the example brought up to-night similar 
appearances were present, namely, very small testicles with 
microscopically an excess of fibrous tissue (interstitial increase) 
and a definite atrophy of the tubules. It looked then as if 
this atrophic condition might have something to do with 
the appearance of the hen feathering, not in the way of a 
female hormone forming, but by a diminution of the testicular 
hormone allowing dormant hermaphroditic or gynandro- 
morphic tendencies, which had so far been kept under, to 
become more prominent. That extra-gonadal factors alone 
could influence the production of hen feathering seemed, to 
be proved, however, by the cases observed and recorded by 
Torrey & Horning (quoted by Harrison, loc. cit. p. 95), where 
young cockerels fed on thyroid gland developed such feathers. 
The subject was an interesting one, and more work on it 
might elucidate the exact cause. 

Specimens exhibited. 

1. Pheasant, female, assuming male plumage [The Hon. 
Guy Charteris : January 29, 1938. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1938. 

Macroscopically : ovary small, shrunken, blackish colour. 

Microscopically : early signs of degeneration present, 
acute congestion, but many of the follicles appear quite 
healthy and functional still. Medulla some evidence of 
proliferation, ? embryonic testicular tissue. No development 
of right gonad noted. 

2. Pheasant, female, assuming male plumage [Dr. B. B. 
Riviere : December 31, 1937. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1938.1.2.1]. 

Macroscopically : ovary gone. 

Microscopically : sections of ovarian site ; ovary replaced 
by fibrous tissue, some remains of black pigment still visible. 
No development in right gonad. 

3. Partidge, female, assuming male plumage [Mr. G. E. 

Macroscopically : ovary small and degenerate looking, 

darkened in colour. 


Vol. lviii.] 88 [1938. 

Microscopically : cortex extensively diseased, normal fol- 
licles gone, only the atrophied and fibrosed remains of one or 
two seen, cellular infiltration and fibrosis with much black 
pigment. Medulla shows evidence of embryonic testicular 
tissue developing. No sign of any development in right 

4. Tragopan, female, assuming male plumage (Tragopan 

Commencing atrophy of ovary, many of the follicles gone 
and replaced by fibrous tissue. Considerable deposit of 
black pigment. Large cyst at one end of organ. 

5. Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera), female, assuming 
male plumage. 

Macros copically : only a tiny piece of the ovary left. 
Serial sections of the whole of this were cut. 

Microscopically : follicles completely gone ; replaced by 
dense fibrous tissue, with in places a cellular infiltration. 
No sign of medullary hyperplasia or formation of embryonic 
testicular tissue. No pigment. 

Some primitive cellular development at right ovarian site, 
? embryonic testicular tissue. 

6. Pheasant, male, with some perversion of plumage 
[bought in Leadenhall Market, January 2, 1938, by Mr. J. W. 
Bertram Jones. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1938.2.2.1] ; a certain 
amount of hen-feathering present. On examination the 
testes were found to be small, and sections of these examined 
microscopically showed considerable increase of the inter- 
stitial tissue with definite atrophy of the tubules. [Compare 
cock pheasant 5, Bull. B. 0. C. Hi. 1932, p. 94, and Dr. J. M. 
Harrison's two cock pheasants, ibid. p. 95.] Similar changes 
to those described above were found in all of those as well, 
which would seem to be suggestive. 

Professor J. B. Cleland of Adelaide, after expressing 
his appreciation of the invitation to him, as representing, in 
a way, the Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union and the 
South Australian Ornithological Association, to be present at 
the dinner and meeting, mentioned some aspects of bird life 

1938.] 89 [Vol. lviii. 

in Australia that he thought might be of interest to members. 
In the dry central parts of Australia rain falls at irregular 
intervals. There may be many months, or even several 
years, between good general falls of rain. Isolated thunder- 
storms may, however, occur. Within a few days of the rain 
the vegetation springs up, flowers soon appear, and the birds 
start nesting. In these parts the nesting season seems to 
be entirely dependent on the occurrence of rain. It may 
occur at any period of the year if there has been a good fall, 
and may not occur for more than a year if there be a drought. 
Obviously the question of sunlight cannot be a prime factor 
in the breeding of these birds, but fresh vegetation and its 
accompaniments following the rain seem to be the stimulus 
that initiates the process. Perhaps some vitamin or other 
essential may be supplied by the green vegetation and the 
insect life that feeds on it. He also asked why do not certain 
Waders etc., which breed in Siberia and visit Australia 
during the northern winter (which is the Australian summer), 
breed in Australia if the factors of sunlight be the all-important 
one ? He hazarded the suggestion, apropos of a recent 
article in ' Nature ' dealing with the Ice-ages, that Australia 
had drifted, like other continental areas, and that at one time 
it had been in close contact with the southern part of the 
Siberian breeding grounds of these Waders. As the drift 
extended farther the separation became greater, but the birds 
still visited the same land-mass during the winter period. 
Finally, Australia reached a position south of the equator, 
with a reversal of the seasons, but the migration still continued, 
the breeding ground showing the true home of the Waders. 

Professor Cleland mentioned the bird censuses that he had 
taken during expeditions by motor into the central parts 
of Australia. A fairly accurate estimate of the number of 
birds over a narrow strip of country, perhaps 100 miles long 
by one-eighth mile on each side of the track, could be made 
by noting down on a card the species seen and scoring marks 
against these, as in runs at cricket, as individuals were 
observed. He mentioned also the value of birds to the early 
explorers ; how Captain Sturt's life was saved by a pigeon 
being seen flying low at dusk and settling some distance 

Vol. lviii.] 90 [1938. 

away ; Sturt assumed that it was making for water, followed 
it up, and his life and that of his horse were saved. Other 
explorers had been warned of the presence of natives by seeing 
crows hovering over their camps. 

He mentioned having recently seen a Bare-eyed Cockatoo 
picking stick-fast fleas from the eyelids and nostrils of a tied -up 
dog with its great clumsy-looking bill and eating them, the 
dog contentedly submitting to the process. The large black 
cockatoos of Central Australia, with bills fashioned for 
tearing asunder bark and opening hard fruits, had had to 
turn their attention to other sources of food in that part of 
the world, as there were so few trees, and now collected minute 
grass seeds the size of grains of millet with this seemingly 
clumsy bill. 

Monsieur J. Berlioz sent the following description of 
a new species belonging to the family Formicariidse : — 

Pithy s castanea, sp. no v. 

Description. — General shape and structure similar to the well- 
known Pithy s albifrons (Gm.) ; but the whole plumage, except 
the head, above and below, wings and tail uniform chestnut 
(the same colour as the underparts of P. albifrons), scarcely 
lighter on the lower abdomen ; the remiges dusky blackish 
towards the tips, at least on the inner webs. Head all round 
deep black from the nasal feathers to the nape, and also the 
ear- coverts and upper part of the throat ; but the chin and 
sides of the head, including the lores, feathers round the eye, 
and a triangular space behind the latter whitish, sharply 
contrasted. Feathering of the face normal, with no elongated 
feathers on front and chin. 

Distribution. — P. castanea seems to live side by side in the 
tropical zone of eastern Ecuador with P. albifrons peruviana 
Tacz., three specimens of which were sent from the same 

Soft parts. — Bill blackish, lighter towards the tip of the 
mandible. Legs and feet (in dried skin) light -coloured, 
probably reddish in life. 

1938.] 91 [Vol. iviii 

Type (in the Paris Museum). — Male, collected at Andoas 
lower Pastaza, eastern Ecuador, on September 16, 1937. 

Measurements of type. — Total length about 140 mm 
(5-7 in.) ; wing 82 ; culmen 15 ; tarsus 23. 

Remarks. — Generically this bird agrees entirely in struc 
tural and pigmentary character (plumage, legs, bill), as well 
as in pattern, with Pithy s albifrons, a common bird of the 
Amazonian forest, known from Ecuador to Guiana. The 
two species are, however, quite different : P. castanea is 
obviously a larger bird than its ally, with uniform chestnut 
colour (without the grey back and wings of P. albifrons), 
a deep black cap, including the nasal feathers, and apparently 
(the specimen seems quite adult) nothing recalling the white 
elongated feathers characteristic of the other species. 

The Marquess Hachisuka sent the following description 
of a new Kaleege Pheasant : — 

GennaBUS moffitti, sp. nov. 

Description. — Entire plumage black, occiput and crest with 
a greenish metallic sheen, neck to upper tail- coverts with 
a deep metallic blue sheen towards the end of each feather. 
The rump and the upper tail- coverts have a deeper sheen 
at the end of each feather, which forms a scale-like appear- 
ance. Throat black ; upper neck shines like the back ; 
breast, abdomen, under tail-coverts, and thighs black, like 
the throat, without metallic sheen. Long flank-feathers 
black, with blue sheen toward their tips. White shaft-markings 
are apparent on the underside, these are distinctly white on 
the breast and smoky white on the thighs and abdomen. 
Primaries and wing-coverts black, but the latter have a 
greenish metallic tinge, like the occiput. Tail-feathers 
fourteen in number, with a greenish tinge on their webs. 

Soft parts. — Naked skin around the eyes red. Bill, legs, 
and spur bluish horny. 

Type. — Male, bred at W. L. Smith's Game Farm, Fair 
Oaks, California, in 1935, where it died July 22, 1936 (parents 
of the type imported from Calcutta) : No. 42443 in the 

Vol. lviii.] 92 [1938. 

ornithological collection of the California Academy of Science ; 
original number, 1924, J. Moffitt. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 235; longest crest-feather 
78 ; tail 275 ; culmen 26 ; middle toe with claw 60 ; tarsus 80 ; 
spur 14 mm. 

Remarks. — Mr. Leland Smith, of Fair Oaks, some fifteen 
miles out of Sacramento, California, is a well-known game- 
bird breeder who, in 1934, received in San Francisco from 
Calcutta a pair of unidentified Kaleege Pheasant. The 
plumage of the male is black, with abundant steel-blue sheen 
on the dorsal part. The abdominal part of the body is not 
so glossy, and the breast-feathers have very faint shaft- 
markings of a paler shade — that is to say, the bird resembles 
G. melanotus, but has the underside black, or like G. horsfieldi 
without the white rump. 

The female differs from G. melanotus in having a plain buff- 
coloured throat, the central pair of tail-feathers more like 
G. horsfieldi, plain hair-brown without any markings. The 
pair bred successfully during the following year, 1935. 
The twenty- seven eggs laid are much darker than the eggs of 
G. leucomelanos, having more pinkish -buff and pointed ends 
with abundant white " chippings," as against the very pale 
buffish -tinted eggs, without the pinkish tinge, of the latter. In- 
cubation period was twenty- three days, like that of all 
the other Himalayan Kaleeges. Two pairs of offspring reached 

Both male and female offspring are, feather for feather, 
identical with their parents imported from India. The pair 
did not breed in 1936, but in 1937 Mr. Smith had been more 
successful. In May there were nine normally coloured chicks, 
and in October several young cocks assumed their adult 
plumage exactly the same as their male parent. 

The colour of the chick is particularly important, because 
mutant chicks of both the golden and the common pheasants 
are chocolate -brown with yellow portions. 

The breeding experiment of this Kaleege Pheasant not 
only proves that it breeds true to type, but that it is not 
a melanistic mutant, in spite of the cock's having a uniformly 

1938.] 93 [Vol. lviii. 

dark plumage ; therefore I propose to name it in honour of 
Mr. James Moffitt, of the California Academy of Science. 

In 1925 Dr. P. R. Lowe named a race of Polyplectron 
bicalcaratum after Mr. S. Baily. Three of these P. b. bailyi 
were brought over to England and bred in Mr. Baily's aviary. 
Dr. Lowe believes that it possibly inhabits northern Siam 
and was brought by boat down the river to Bangkok ; but 
this has not yet been confirmed, and the home of P. b. bailyi 
still remains to be discovered. A curious mistake occurred 
in Beebe's monograph in vol. iv. pi. lxxvii., where he depicts 
Baily's Peacock Pheasant and calls it Polyplectron germaini, 
a totally different species. The book was published several 
years previous to Lowe's discovery. So this new bird must 
have passed Beebe's hand, but escaped his critical eyes. 
Since the above article has been written in California I 
returned to Japan with a pair of 1937-born G. moffitti presented 
to me by Mr. L. Smith. It was much to my surprise to know 
that this new species is already well known to the Japanese 
ornithologists, that Prince Taka-Tsukasa, Messrs. Matsunaga, 
and Rihei Okada possessed and bred many of them within 
the last few years. I saw a pair at the Prince's aviary, and 
was told that since they first arrived at his aviary they had 
bred true to type for several generations. 

As to the native habitat of this bird we know absolutely 
nothing other than that it was shipped from Calcutta. 
Judging from its plumage it should be found west of Burma, 
as it is far removed from G. lineatus, and somewhere close to 
eastern G. leucomelanos group in north-east of India and south 
of Tibet. This region is not a great distance from Calcutta, 
and if my surmise is correct I am astonished that many 
English sportsmen and naturalists have not reported this 
bird before. It is for this reason I describe G. moffitti as a 
full species until we know more about its native habitat. 

We recall that G. lineatus was discovered by Latham 
in 1828 among aviary birds in India and its home was 
unknown. Nothing further was learned about it until 
1831, when Vigors named it from a specimen sent from 
Malacca, but Malacca is some 500 miles south of the home 
of the Lineated Pheasant, 

Vol. lviii.] 94 [1938. 

Colonel Meinertzhagen sent the following descriptions of 
four new races : — 

£2gypius monachus danieli, subsp. nov. 

Description. — As M. m. monachus, but larger. 

Distribution. — Chinese Turkestan, Mongolia, and North 
China. Birds from Russian Turkestan are intermediate. 

Type. — In the Zoological Museum, Academy of Sciences, 
Leningrad, ad. $, Changai, Mongolia, June 1929. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 840, culmen 61 mm. 

Remarks. — I have examined all the specimens in the Berlin 
and Leningrad Museums, and have been sent, owing to the 
kindness of Dr. Mayr, the measurements of specimens in the 
American Museum of Natural History (including those in the 
Rothschild Collection), altogether forty-six specimens. The 
following is a table of measurements : — 

No. of 
specimens. Locality. Wing. Culmen. 

1 Spain. 780 62 

14 Caucasus, Terek, 

S. Urals, Rumania. 753-817 61-68 

1 Aden. 782 62-5 

1 East Persia. 780 62-5 

2 S.W. Siberia. 780-791 59-61 

13 Russian Turkestan. 770-856 57-67 

2 Chinese Turkestan. 805-887 58-62 

4 Mongolia. 801-840 61-67 

1 Tsaidam. 816 56 

2 Kukunor. 805-851 61-5 

Named after my brother Daniel, who was especially 
interested in Accipitres. The type-locality of A. m. 
monachus has been fixed as Arabia (Ibis, 1934, p. 347), 
and the only possible name for an eastern form is Vultur 
chincou Daudin, Traite d'Orn ii. 1800, p. 12, ex Levaillant, 
Ois. d'Afr. taf. 12, from a captivity specimen which was said 
to have come from " China." It is a most unlikely source 
for such a large bird in the eighteenth century, especially as 
it only occurs in the parts of China which were most 

1938.] 95 [Vol. lviii. 

inaccessible in those days. In any case, the type of Vultur 
chincou is indeterminable. 

Parus rufonuchalis blanchardi, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Mantle dark lead-grey, entirely lacking the 
greenish wash which is invariable in P. r. rufonuchalis. Black 
of underparts extending to abdomen, which sometimes occurs 
in P. r. rufonuchalis. Pectoral tufts almost absent. Nuchal 
patch almost absent. 

Distribution. — Only known from the Gardez Forest, 
N.W. Afghanistan. 

Type. — In the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley, 
California, <J, no. 70132. N.W. side of Gardez Forest, Afghan- 
istan, June 3, 1935 ; collected by Mr. D. H. Blanchard. 

Measurements. — Wing 79, culmen from skull 13 mm. 

Remarks. — This remarkable though unique specimen is so 
very different from all known races that I have no hesitation 
in describing it. There is nothing like it in the British, Berlin, 
nor Leningrad Museums, nor in my own series. There are, 
however, in the British Museum three specimens collected by 
Mr. Douglas Carruthers in June 1908 from the Hissar Mts., 
100 miles east of Samarkhand. In these the pectoral tufts 
are well developed, the black does not reach the abdomen, 
and the green wash on the mantle is considerably less than is 
usual in P. r. rufonuchalis. These three specimens seem to 
be intermediate between this new form and P. r. rufonu- 

Mr. Blanchard made a small collection of birds in northern 
Afghanistan in 1935. Most of his specimens are in the 
Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley, California, and I 
have to thank Dr. Grinnell for the loan of some of his specimens, 
among which was this new and remarkable form of Tit. 

Erythrina synoica salimalii, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Compared with E. s. stoliczse the male and 

female of this form are not nearly so sandy above, and the 

rose below in the male is more extended and deeper in tint. 

Compared with E. s. beicki this form is greyer, not so brown, 

Vol. lviii.] 96 [1938. 

on the mantle. In the male the rose of the underparts is 
brighter and more extended towards vent and under tail- 
coverts. In E. s. beicki the rose rarely reaches the abdomen 
except as a very pale wash. 

Distribution. — Only so far known from the Bamian Valley 
between the Shibar Pass and Akrobat Pass at between 8000 
and 11,000 feet. 

Type. — In my collection. Male, Akrobat, 9000 feet, 
N. Afghanistan, April 26, 1937, collected by myself. Named 
after Mr. Salim Ali, who drew my attention to the bird. 

Measurements. — Wing of 10 males 95-100 mm., and of 
5 females 90-94 mm. 

Remarks. — Compared with a small series of E. s. synoica 
in my collection and with large series of E. s. beicki and 
E. s. stoliczae, in the Berlin and Leningrad Museums. 

Sitta neumayer subcaeruleus, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Much paler above than topotypical S. n. 
tephronota, and with less rusty colour on the underparts. 
The mantle is a clearer, cleaner blue-grey. 

Type. — In my collection, male, Haibak, Afghan Turkestan, 
3000 feet, May 17, 1937. 

Distribution. — Only known from near Haibak in Afghan 

Remarks. — A series of eight compared with a large series of 
S. n. tephronota from Russian Turkestan, East Persia, and 

Mr. G. M. Mathews sent the following notes : — 
Procellaria oceanic a Bonaparte. 

In the ' Zoological Journal,' vol. iii. no. 9, for January 
1827, p. 89, Bonaparte, in article ten, " Supplement to an 
Account of four Species of Stormy Petrel," uses Procellaria 
oceanica Nob. [=Oceanites]. In 'Annals of the Lyceum of 
Natural History of New York,' vol. ii. for 1828 (February 5), 
Bonaparte, p. 449, introduced Thalassidroma oceanica Nob. 
and described a bird very similar to Procellaria grallaria 
Vieillot, 1818. Of the feet he said " the principal and most 
remarkable character (which I also observed in the other 

1938.] 97 [Vol. Iviii. 

specimen, but did not notice, fearing it to be artificial) is the 
following, the nails are plane (quite flat), dilated and rounded 
at tip, quite different from those of other species . . . and 
somewhat resembling those of the species of the genus 

Here we have Bonaparte noticing the shape of the nails, 
and so agreeing with Kuhl, who, in 1820, says that they were 
" plate-shaped, flattened, and by no means compressed." 
Unanimity so far. 

Now we come to the confusion of a name, one of the many 
in our science. 

Bonaparte in 1855 had specimens of Gould's Thalassidroma 
melanogaster and a specimen of a bird very like it, now called 
Cymodroma leucothysanus, but by Bonaparte called, wrongly, 
Fregetta leucogaster. This mistake has been perpetuated 
more or less since then, perhaps because there is in the British 
Museum a bird with a red type -label on it which has wrongly 
been considered to be Gould's type of Thalassidroma leucogaster. 
The real type of Gould's name is in Philadelphia ; and when it 
was loaned to me it was accompanied by a bird also called 
Fregettornis grallaria, but which by its feet is obviously 
Cymodroma leucothysanus. This explains how mistakes of 
identification are carried on by careful workers. 

In 1855 Bonaparte was working on Petrels, and had the skins 
named as above, and wished to introduce a new genus. 
He considered his " Fregetta leucogaster " and Fregetta 
melanogaster to be congeneric and quite distinct from his 
Thalassidroma oceanica, which latter had large nails like 
those on the Grebe's feet. That is to say that Bonaparte 
considered that his " Fregetta leucogaster " and Fregetta 
melanogaster differed distinctly and generically from Freget- 
tornis grallaria, which he called Fregetta oceanica. 

As long ago as 1878 Sharpe hinted that his Fregetta 
leucogastra (= Cymodroma leucothysanus) may be only a phase 
of Fregetta melanogastra. His examples had white edgings to 
the feathers of the upper surface, which Sharpe thought 
might be a sign of immaturity. With this view Salvin 
disagreed, owing to the confusion of names, Salvin's Fregetta 
grallaria being correctly named (P.Z.S. 1878, p. 736). 

Vol. lviii.] 98 [1938. 

Coues in 1864, writing in the Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 
p. 87, for March (pub. June 30), says that the foot of Fregetta 
melanogaster Gould is " the most patent point of difference " 
from the same part of Fregetta grallaria. This remark was 
made after comparing Gould's type of Fregetta leucogaster 
(=grallaria) with Gould's type of Fregetta melanogaster. 
This difference is so unusual that it could be made a reason 
for separating it at least subgenerically. Most careful workers 
have observed this difference, from Bonaparte's time to the 
present day. Less careful workers have not noticed the foot 
formation in Storm Petrels, or else have under- valued it. 

The species Cymodroma tropica and Cymodroma deceptis 
have the same structure ; this is different from that of 
Fregettornis grallaria. The species Cymodroma tropica could 
not be confused with Fregettornis grallaria, whereas Cymo- 
droma deceptis apparently often has been considered to be 
Fregettornis grallaria, owing largely, if not entirety, to its 
having the same wide white margins to be feathers of the upper- 
surface, the foot construction being quite different. This 
mis-identification, for the above reason, is observed in the 
Academy at Philadelphia, where there are two specimens 
each with pronounced white fringes to the feathers of the back, 
one the type of Gould's Thai, leucogaster, the other with 
quite differently shaped feet, and now known as Cymodroma 
leucothysanus , but by that Institution labelled Fregetta grallaria. 

In the 'Emu ', vol. xxii. Oct. 1, 1922, pt. 2, pp. 81-97, 
Messrs. Kinghorn and Cayley review the differences between 
the genera Fregetta and Fregettornis. They point out these 
differences very clearly and admit both genera. 

They had two skins of the bird now called Cymodroma, 
leucothysanus, wrongly labelled by Gould as Fregetta leuco- 
gaster, which latter names these authors considered to be 
a synonym of Cymodroma tropica. In other words they con- 
sidered Cymodroma tropica to be in a quite distinct genus 
from Fregettornis grallaria. There can be no doubt but that 
Cymodroma deceptis and Cymodroma leucothysanus, Cymo- 
droma tropica and Cymodroma melanogaster are closely related 
and congeneric, and differ in several important particulars 
from Fregettornis grallaria and its subspecies. 

1938.] 99 [Vol. lviii 

Fregettornis grallaria. Cymodroma tropica. 

Toes short, and measure the same Toes long, and measure longer 

length as the widest expanse of than the widest expanse of 

the foot. the foot. 

Expanded foot roughly equilateral Expanded foot roughly isosceles 

in shape. triangular in shape. 

Basal joint of middle toe scaled. Basal joint of middle toe not 


Tarsus scaled. Tarsus not scaled. 

Feet with toes of about equal Feet with inner toe noticeably 

length. shorter than the other two. 

Claws wide as long. Claws long and thin. 

Feet not projecting beyond the tail Feet projecting beyond the tail 

in life. in life. 

Fregettornis grallaria. 

A good example of the wrong identification of the " short- 
toed " and " long-toed grallaria " is from the Academy of 
Natural Sciences in Philadelphia. I asked the authorities 
for their series on loan, and the type of Gould's Fregetta 
leucogaster was sent and with it an example of the bird now 
called Cymodroma leucothysanus. In this specimen the webs 
of the three outer tail-feathers are white, more pronounced 
on the inner ; fourth and fifth with the inner web only white 
central pair all dark. The wing is 165 mm. ; tail 81 ; bill 15 
tarsus 41 ; middle toe and claw 27 ; outer toe and claw 26 
inner 24 ; and this specimen resembles the type of Cymodroma 
leucothysanus. In the type of Fregettornis leucogaster (Gould) 
the middle toe and claw measures 23 mm., and resembles in 
foot construction the type of Fregettornis grallaria. 

In Fregettornis grallaria and its subspecies the tarsus and 
basal toe -joints are scaled, in Cymodroma deceptis and Cymo- 
droma leucothysanus these parts are booted 

The question which arises is not whether these last two 
names belong to grallaria, but are they a phase of Cymodroma 
tropica ? 

The form Cymodroma tubulata fits into the super-species 
Cymodroma tropica, with the middle toe and claw equal to 
the outer toe and claw in measurement, viz., 25 mm., and the 
inner toe and claw 22. In Cymodroma tropica these parts 
measure 29 mm. and 26, in Cymodroma melanogaster 28 
and 25, 

Vol. lviii.] 100 [1938. 

Nesofregetta amphitrite. 
Coues, in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. p. 85, 1864 (for 
March, pub. June 30), says that Fregetta tropica (Gould) is 
the largest species of the genus, the middle toe with claw 
1J inches (32 mm.), tarsus 42 to 44, bill 15 ; and on p. 86 
says that it has a white nuchal collar. What bird can this be ? 
Indubitably a badly made skin of Nesofregetta, and this 
explains Bonaparte's remarks in ' Comptes Rendus,' vol. xli. 
pp. 1112-3, Dec. 24, 1855. 

Mr. R. H. W. Pakenham sent the following notes : — 


Mr. Vaughan, in Ibis, 1929, p. 605, says that his three 
males from Pemba Island differ from A. t. tachiro and 
A. t. sparsimfasciatus in lacking any white spots in the tail, 
which spots are large in A. t. tachiro and smaller but distinct 
in A. t. sparsimfasciatus. The spotting, I find, varies a good 
deal among individuals, being practically absent in a 
A.t. tachiro from Northern Rhodesia while clear in others ; again, 
in two A. t. sparsimfasciatus from Kenya and Uganda I find 
the spotting absent, though it is just perceptible in two skins 
from Zanzibar and Uganda. Two of the three Pemba males 
have pale patches on the central tail-feathers, corresponding 
to the white patches in A. t. tachiro. 

Mr. Vaughan points out that the Pemba birds are rufous 
on the underparts, and in this respect are nearer to A.t. tachiro ; 
but since his paper was written a male A. t. sparsimfasciatus 
from Lango, Uganda, has come into the National Collection 
which is even more rufous on the breast than the Pemba 


A survey of all the specimens of Tchitrea perspicillata, 
perspicillata, T. p. plumbeiceps, and T. viridis suahelica in the 
British Museum, from the Cape to Lamu and inland to the 
Great Lakes, covering the territories of Kenya, Zanzibar, 
Tanganyika,Portuguese East Africa, Nyasa] and, the Rhodesias, 

1938.] 101 [Vol. lviii. 

Transvaal, Natal, and the Cape Province, leads me to the 
following conclusions : — 

T. perspicillata perspicillata. — Characterized by absence of 
any trace of white feathering on the upper side ; blue-green 
sheen on the throat of males ; whitish lower abdomen and vent. 
Examined twelve males, three females, and five unsexed birds, 
from the Cape, Natal, Transvaal, Nyasaland, and the Zambesi ; 
and twelve males, six females, and two unsexed birds, from 
Tanganyika, Kenya, and Zanzibar. 

T. perspicillata plumbeiceps. — Characterized by absence of 
any trace of white feathering on the upper side ; very little 
sheen on the heads of either sex ; grey throat continuing into 
grey breast and flanks of the same tone (not so dark as T. viridis 
suahelica), shading off paler into a light grey abdomen and 
white or whitish vent and under tail- coverts. Examined 
fourteen males, six females, and six unsexed birds, from 
Natal, Transvaal, the Rhodesias, and Portuguese East Africa. 

T. viridis suahelica. — Characterized by some white, if only 
a trace, in the feathering of the upper side ; blue -green sheen 
on the throat of males ; much darker grey on the underside 
than in T. p. perspicillata and T. p. plumbeiceps, and either 
no white at all or just a trace at the vent or under tail- coverts. 
Examined twenty -two males, two females, and one unsexed 
bird, from Uganda, Kenya, and Tanganyika. 

All three forms are equal in size. 

Their distribution, based on the localities of the skins 
which I have examined, is as follows : — 

T. perspicillata perspicillata. — From Knysna (Cape Province) 
to the Zambesi and Maloza at the south end of Lake Nyasa. 
Thence, across a gap of some 700 miles where none of the three 
forms has been collected, to Kilosa in Tanganyika, where 
exactly the same bird occurs. Thence it occurs at several 
places along the coast from Dar-es-salaam to Takaungu 
(north of Mombasa). It occurs on Kilimanjaro and on 
Zanzibar and Pemba Islands. West of Lake Nyasa it was 
taken at Kachere. 

T. perspicillata plumbeiceps. — A line drawn from Durban 
northwards along the coast to Quelimane Province, thence 

Vol. lviii.] 102 [1938. 

inland to Petauke (north-eastern Northern Rhodesia), Mash- 
onaland, Matabeleland, Rustenburg (Transvaal), and back to 
Durban encloses the territory where it is found. This form 
and T. p. perspicillata overlap one another's territory all the 
way from Durban to Petauke and Quelimane, which indicates 
that they are really distinct species. 

T. viridis suahelica. — From Kilimanjaro, Amani, and 
Ngomeni up the coast to Lamu and thence inland to Victoria 
Nyanza, and north and west of the area thus delineated. 
This form intergrades with T.p. perspicillata from Kilimanjaro 
and Ngomeni along the coast only to Takaungu. When all 
the forms of Tchitrea in the Ethiopian region come to be 
revised, this race may well be grouped as a subspecies of 
T. perspicillata. 

Calamcecetor leptorhyncha. 

In Ibis, 1937, p. 299, Dr. Bannerman, in his review of the 
genus Calamoecetor, differentiates between C. leptorhyncha 
leptorhyncha and C. I. macrorhyncha on the sole ground, 
presumably, of wing-size, since he found the wings of three 
males and three females from the coasts of Kenya (mouth of 
the Tana River), Amani (Tanganyika), Zanzibar and Pemba 
Islands, measured : males 62-64 mm., females 64-65 (one 
being 58) ; and those of three males and three females from 
Kenya (except coast) — Laikipia, Kiambu, Nakuru, Lake 
Naivasha — and Abyssinia (Lake Zwai), measured : males 
69-72 mm., females 67-70. These specimens he attributed 
to the subspecies C. 1. leptorhyncha and C. I. macrorhyncha 

Since this review was written more material has become 
available at the British Museum which brings into question 
the separability of these two races. I find four males of C. I. 
macrorhyncha from south Abyssinia, Kafue River (N. Rhodesia), 
and N.E. Rhodesia have wings 64, 67, 68, 72 mm. ; and eight 
males of C '. I. leptorhyncha from Amani andMbulu (Tanganyika) 
have wings 61, 63, 66, 66, 67, 68, 69, 69 mm. I find also four 
females of C. I. macrorhyncha from Kiambu and Lake Nakuru 
(Kenya), Nyasaland, and N.E. Rhodesia have wings 65, 66, 
67, 72 mm. ; and three females of C. I. leptorhyncha from Amani, 

1938.] 103 [Vol. lviii. 

Mbulu, Zanzibar and Pemba have wings 59, 66, 69 mm. 
(The two Laikipia specimens, male and female — the latter 
being the type of C. I. macrorhyncha — were discounted as being 
rusty -coloured juveniles.) 

All these fall within the " small " group of Admiral Lynes 
and Mr. Sclater (Ibis, 1934, p. 43) with the exception of two 
(a male from Lake Zwai, south Abyssinia, wing 72 mm., and 
a female from Kiambu, Kenya, wing 72 mm., which, however, 
fall short of their " large " group, whose wing is 77^4 mm. ; 
further, some of their other measurements definitely bring 
them within the " small " group. 

There is thus general agreement that they all fall into the 
" small " species C. I. leptorhyncha, but I maintain that their 
division into C. I. leptorhyncha and C. I. macrorhyncha is 
impossible, seeing that the overlap in measurement is so con- 
siderable and they are alike in appearance ; this latter fact was 
demonstrated by the unsuccessful attempt of a disinterested 
third party to separate them after they had been 
mixed up. 

In my view they are all one race, i.e., Calamoecetor leptorhyncha 
leptorhyncha (Reichw.), having the following distribution : 
Tana River (type-locality), inland to Lake Zwai (about 
70 miles south of Addis Abbaba), south to Lake Nakuru 
(Kenya), Mbulu and Amani (Tanganyika), Kafue River 
(Northern Rhodesia, near Belgian Congo border), Nyasaland ; 
also Zanzibar and Pemba Islands. 

Mandingoa nitidula. 

Typical M . n. nitidula (as Estrilda nitidula) was described 
by Hartlaub in Ibis, 1865, p. 269, from a female from Natal. 
There is no mention of any orange wash on the breast, 
and the single Natal female in the British Museum con- 
firms that the breast is plain greyish-green. A male from 
the type-locality has a plain olive-green breast with no orange 
or golden wash. Hartlaub 's description further postulates 
that the area of the lores and about the base of the bill is 
" fulvo-aurantia " (tawny golden-yellow). 

In Ogilvie-Grant's description of M . n. chubbi (as Pytelia 
chubbi) in Bull. B. O. C. xxix. 1912, p. 64, the type being 

Vol. lviii.] 104 [1938. 

a male from Marsabit, he differentiates it from M. n. nitidula 
thus : 

Male, similar to M . n. nitidula Hartl., but has the breast 
washed with scarlet-orange. Wing 54 mm. 

Female, similar to M . n. nitidula, but with orange-buff on 
lores, cheeks, and chin, extending over the throat and con- 
tinued in a slightly darker shade over the chest. Wing 53 mm. 

An adult male and female from north Gazaland, S. Rhodesia, 
an adult male from Pemba, two adult males and an adult 
female from Amani, and an adult male from Mombasa, 
approximate more nearly to this description than to M. n. 
nitidula, though the scarlet -orange wash on the breast of the 
males varies and is in no case as deep as in the type from 

I find wings of Natal and East African birds substantially 
the same. 

Ogilvie-Grant gives the distribution of M . n. chubbi as 
" British East Africa (i. e., Kenya) and Uganda, ranging from 
Mombasa northwards to Marsabit and westwards to Entebbe." 
It may or may not turn out that Gazaland birds are chubbi ; 
but in any event I consider that with the addition of Amani 
and the Zanzibar Protectorate Ogilvie- Grant's distribution 
should stand until modified or disproved by further evidence 
(compare relative distribution of the two races in Sclater, 
Syst. Av. iEthiop. p. 786). 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following three notes : — 

1. On the Races of Lybius torquatus (Dumont), and the 
Status of Lybius zombse (Shelley). 

Sclater, Syst. Av. ^Ethiop. i. 1924, p. 271, recognizes two 
races of L. torquatus, and considers L. zombx as a species 
with one race. Lynes, J. f. O. 1934, p. 65, considers his 
birds from Njombe and Iringa to be L. t. congicus (Reichenow). 
Belcher, Bds. Nyasaland, 1930, p. 161, expresses the opinion 
that L. zombse is a local and changeable form of L. torquatus 
and should perhaps be called L. torquatus zombse. Vincent, 

1938.] 105 [Vol. lviii. 

Ibis, 1935, p. 6, says that the call of L. zombse is the same 
as that of L. torquatus. 

Our examination of the fine series in the British Museum 
collection shows that Belcher's opinion can be upheld and 
that too many races have been recognized. We recognize 
three, as follows : — 

{a) Lybius torquatus torquatus (Dumont). 

Bucco torquatus Dumont, Diet. Sci. Nat. iv. 1806, p. 58, 
pi. xxviii. : South-eastern Cape Province, South Africa, of 
which Melanobucco torquatus congicus Reichenow, in Werth. 
Mittl. Hoch. D. 0. Afr. 1898, p. 273 : Marungu, S. E. Belgian 
Congo ; and Lybius torquatus pumilio Grote, 0. M. xxxv. 
1927, p. 144 : Uvira, eastern Belgian Congo, are synonyms ; 
inasmuch as we can see no characters by which they can be 

Forehead, sides of head, and throat to neck rich crimson 

Distribution. — From the Cape Province and Natal to 
Angola, Portuguese East Africa, the Rhodesias, south-western 
and western Nyasaland, Belgian Congo, and southern and 
western Tanganyika Territory, as far north as Iringa and 
Kalago, 190 miles south of Kigoma. 

(b) Lybius torquatus irroratus (Cab.). 
Pogonorhynchus irroratus Cabanis, J. f. 0. 1878, p. 205 : 

Mombasa, Kenya Colony. 

Forehead, sides of head, and throat to neck more brick-red, 
and feathers lanceolate in shape, especially on throat and 

Distribution. — Coastal areas of Kenya Colony and eastern 
and central Tanganyika Territory as far west as the Dodoma 
District, and as far south as Dar-es-Salaam. 

(c) Lybius torquatus zombje Shelley. 

Melanobucco zombse Shelley, Ibis, 1893, p. 10 : Zomba, 
southern Nyasaland ; of which Lybius zombse, albigularis 
Neumann, Bull. B. O. C. xxi. 1908, p. 46 : Songea, south- 
western Tanganyika Territory, is a synonym. 

Vol. lviii.] 106 [1938. 

Meise, Sond. Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, xxii. i. 1937, p. 123, 
treats L. zombse as a race of L. torquatus, but gives no reasons 
or authority for this arrangement. 

Forehead, sides of head, and throat to neck variable. 
In a few specimens these parts are red, but of a paler and 
more dull brick-red than L. t. irroratus, others are pink, 
but the majority have the forehead, sides of head and throat 
to neck black with white flecks. Similar white flecks (or 
white feathers) are to be found in specimens of both L. t. 
torquatus and L. t. irroratus in amongst the red feathering. 
Previously these dull brick-red specimens had been placed 
under L. t. torquatus, but there is no doubt that they do not 
belong to the typical race, but are the richest coloured 
representatives of L. t. zombse, a race which has presumably now 
lost this red coloration *. 

Distribution. — Southern Nyasaland to central and northern 
Portuguese East Africa and south-western Tanganyika 

Six specimens in the British Museum collection from Tete 
eastwards, and Beira, Portuguese East Africa, are not so rich 
a red as typical L.t. torquatus, but are richer than L.t. zombse, 
and are therefore intermediate between these two races. 
It is possible that the dull red brick and pink phases of 
L. t. zombse are more plentiful in the southern than the 
northern range of this race. 

2. On the Status of the Races of Trachyphonus vaillantii 
Ranzani, Elem. Zool. hi. pt. 2, 1821, p. 159 : south- 
eastern Cape Province. 
Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. i. 1924, p. 284, recognizes two 
races. In 1929 Grote described T. v. suschkini (O. M. xxxvii. 
p. 76 : Tabora), giving the distribution as from northern Uha 
(Kibondo District) to Tabora, Urungu (southern end Lake 
Tanganyika), Kakoma to north Angola. The British Museum 
has specimens from Loangwa and Kambove which have 
wings of 95 to 103 mm. ; and these specimens are within the 
distribution of T. v. suschkini as given by the author, who 

* See Vincent, Bull. B. O. C. liii. 193:5, p. 149, 

1938.] 107 [Vol. lviii. 

gives wing-measurement 93 to 97 mm. Transvaal specimens 
in the British Museum collection measure 97 to 106, one from 
Zululand 99, and one from Natal 96 mm. The characters 
given for T. v. suschkini, for T. v. suahelicus Reichenow, 
J. f. 0. 1887, p. 60 : Usegua, north-eastern Tanganyika 
Territory ; and for T. v. nobilis O. Grant, Ibis, 1912, p. 397 : 
Lake Ngami, Bechuanaland, do not hold good when a series 
is examined, and the character of a weaker or stronger bill 
stressed by some authors appears to be merely an individual 
one. There is also very considerable individual variation 
among birds from the same area. We are therefore of opinion 
that no races can be recognized, and Trachyphonus vaillantii 
Ranz. must be treated binominally. 

3. On the Status of Trachyphonus margaritatus somalicus 

Zedlitz, 0. M. 1910, p. 57 : Al Dubar, British Somaliland ; 

and Trachyphonus margaritatus kingi Bowen, Proc. Ac. 

Nat. Sci. Philad. lxxxiii. 1931, p. 229 : Erkowit, Red Sea 

Province, Sudan. 

Both Sclater, Syst. Av. ^Ethiop. i. 1924, p. 285, and 

Friedmann, Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. Mus. 1930, p. 461, support 

T.m. somalicus. 

Our examination of the good series in the British Museum 
shows that there is no difference between Sennar, Erkowit, 
and British Somaliland specimens. The orange breast is 
to be found in specimens from Omdurman and the French 
Niger amongst others having no orange tint, so that this 
character can only be an individual one. 

We are therefore of the opinion that both T.m. somalicus 
Zedlitz and T. m. kingi Bowen must become synonyms of 
Trachyphonus margaritatus (Cretzchmar) in Riippell's Atlas, 
1826, p. 30, pi. xx. : Sennar, eastern Sudan. 

A Correction. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
point out that on p. 83, line 10, Bull. B. O. C. lviii. 1938, 
the word " not " has been omitted between the words 
" could " and " be," 

3 i may 1938 BULLETIN 




The four-hundred-and-ninth Meeting of the Club was held 
at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, 
May 4, 1938. 

Chairman : Mr. G. M. Mathews. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; W. B. Alexander ; 
F. J. F. Barrington ; Miss M. G. S. Best ; Brig.-Gen. R. M. 
Betham ; The Hon. G. L. Charteris ; A. Ezra ; J. Fisher ; 
Dr. J. M. Harrison ; P. A. D. Hollom ; Dr. E. Hopkinson ; 
B. Lloyd ; Miss C. Longfield ; Dr. P. R. Lowe ; T. H. 
McKittrick, Jr. ; Col. R. Meinertzhagen ; T. H. Newman ; 
M. E. W. North ; C. Oldham ; R. H. W. Pakenham ; 
Mrs. J. B. Priestley ; D. Seth-Smith ; A. Landsborough 
Thomson (Hon. Sec.) ; Mrs. H. W. Boyd Watt ; C. M. N. 
White ; H. F. Witherby ; C. G. M. de Worms. 

Guests : — C. E. Benson ; Miss T. Clay ; H. S. Stokes ; 
Mrs. A. L. Thomson ; L. R. Waud. 

Members, 28 ; Guests, 5. 

Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson made some remarks, 

illustrated by lantern -slides of maps, on the migration of 

the Pintail (Anas acuta). He wished particularly to draw 

attention to the recent reports by Wuczeticz and Tugarinov 

[May 27, 1938.] a vol. lviii. 

Vol. lviii.] 110 [1938. 

(Moscow, 1937), which were not likely to be widely seen in 
this country, on the results of ringing Pintail and Mallard 
(Anas platyrhynchos) in Russia, mainly in the Volga delta. 
It was said that the Pintail did not usually breed in that 
region, and the birds had been caught for marking as adults 
in wing-moult at the end of July. The breeding area was 
indicated by recoveries from farther north, including some 
above the Arctic Circle, in subsequent summers. Continued 
migration was shown by autumn and winter recoveries from 
various southerly directions. Some showed comparatively 
short journeys to the Caucasus region and the southern part 
of the Caspian Sea. Others showed a more extensive move- 
ment south-westwards and westwards to the Balkan countries, 
Italy, southern France, Egypt, and Algeria. There were also 
isolated records from French West Africa and northern India, 
and a few from Germany, Denmark, and Holland : with one 
exception these were all for the autumn of subsequent years 
and probably indicated a different migration from that 
performed in the year of marking. 

For purposes of comparison, Dr. Thomson referred to the 
well-known results which Mortensen had obtained many 
years ago by ringing Pintail caught in autumn in a decoy 
on the island of Fano, off the west coast of Denmark. He 
also mentioned the results of marking Mallard in the Volga 
delta, which showed a movement more restricted in extent 
than that of the Pintail, but otherwise generally similar. 

Mr. W. B. Alexander asked whether possible differences 
between the movements performed by a species in different 
calendar years might account for certain of the results. 
Dr. Thomson thought, however, that when the numbers 
were subdivided in this way the records became too few to 
be reliable samples. 

Mr. H. F. Witherby referred to various ringing records 
which showed that an individual bird might migrate 
differently in different years. Mr. G. L. Charteris also cited 
some recent cases of this kind. Dr. Percy R. Lowe mentioned 
examples of different return routes being used in spring 
from those followed in autumn. 

1938.] Ill [Vol. Iviii. 

Mr. C. Oldham (who had taken the Chair on the departure 
of Mr. Mathews) raised a point regarding the apparent con- 
centration of migration within narrow limits midway between 
two wide areas. Dr. Thomson agreed that this effect was 
largely an artificial result of marking at a single point. 
Mr. F. J. F. Barrington referred to the human factors which 
influence the reporting of marked birds, and the consequent 
danger of quantitative interpretation of such data. 

Colonel R. Meinertzhagen said that the Russian results 
were specially interesting in showing, for the first time, what 
long distances male Pintail might travel from their breeding- 
grounds before undergoing wing-moult. It was usual for the 
birds to seek the nearest suitable sea for that purpose, but in 
the case of some which bred above the Arctic Circle this 
appeared to be the Caspian. 

Mr. R. H. W. Pakenham sent the following description 
of a new race of the East African Red- crested Lourie : — 

Turacus fischeri zanzibaricus, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Similar to T. f. fischeri (Reichw.) from the 
East African coast, but the back and rump and the sheen 
of the wings and tail are blue tinged with violet and with 
little trace of green, as compared with the predominant green 
on those parts in the typical bird ; further, the wing-patch 
is a clear crimson with practically no trace of any sheen as 
compared with the carmine wing-patch of the typical bird, 
which carries a purple sheen. 

Type. — A male collected in the Jozani Forest, Zanzibar 
Island, at sea-level, on February 22, 1937, by Mr. Jack Vincent, 
Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 1938.4.9.1. This type-specimen has 
been presented by Mr. J. Vincent to the British Museum. 

Measurements. — Of a male (the type), wing 172, ; tail 188 ; 
and of a doubtful male, wing 169 ; tail 179 mm. 

Remarks. — The type-specimen had the testes reduced after 
breeding. The only other specimen is a doubtful male taken 
on September 23, 1934, in the same forest by Mr. R. H. W. 
Pakenham ; the gonads of this bird also were inactive, and it 

Vol. lviii.J 112 [1938. 

had been feeding on the berries of Polysphaeria multiflora, 
a common plant in the undergrowth of this forest. This 
specimen is in the British Museum. 

This Lourie is a somewhat silent bird, unlike its congeners, 
and appears to be very uncommon. As far as is known it 
is confined to the Jozani Forest in Zanzibar Island, where the 
local Kiswahili name is " jogoo." 

Mr. C. W. Benson sent the following descriptions of two 
new races : — 

Anomalospiza imberbis nyasse, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Differs from Anomalospiza i. imberbis in 
having the upper parts much darker, the streaks more pro- 
nounced, and the golden yellow replaced by olive yellow ; the 
under parts are also darker, many of the feathers being tipped 
with bufnsh -white, and in some specimens there is a dark 
indistinct band across the breast, but this is variable. From 
the type of A. i. macmillani it differs in being darker both 
above and below and in being less golden yellow. 

Distribution. — Nyasaland, from Dowa District northwards 
to Fort Hill. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Dowa, alti- 
tude 4000 feet. Central Nyasaland. Collected by C. W. 
Benson on September 19, 1937 (collector's No. 666). Brit. 
Mus. Reg. No. 1938.4.13.2. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 71 ; tail 42 ; culmen from 
base 16 ; tarsus 17 mm. 

Remarks. — Two birds collected by Major Cheesman on 
Lake Tana have been identified as A. i. macmillani ; they 
are very similar to this new race, but on the upper parts the 
black streaks are heavier and wider and they appear to be 
brighter green, especially on the rump. Of six additional 
specimens collected by Mr. Benson, four males have a wing- 
measurement of 70, one male 72, while the only female 
measures 65 mm. 

Othyphantes stuhlmanni nyikse, subsp. nov. 
Description.- — Differs from Othyphantes s. stuhlmanni in the 
much darker colour of the whole of the upper parts, partly 

1938.] 113 [Vol. lviii. 

due to the feathers on the back being very much more strongly 
streaked with black. On the under parts it differs in having 
the whole of the abdomen and crissum ashy -cream or buff. 
0. s. sharpii only differs from this new race in having the whole 
of the underparts entirely yellow. 

Distribution. — North Nyasaland. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult, Nyika Plateau, 
North Nyasa, collected by C. W. Benson on November 12, 
1937 (collector's No. 923). Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 1938.4.13.1. 

Measurement of type. — Wing 83 ; tail 62 ; culm en from base 
20 ; tarsus 24 mm. 

Remarks. — Three other male specimens collected by 
Mr. Benson at the same locality have a wing-measurement 
of 80-82 mm. 

Mr. R. E. More ait sent the following : — 

About the date Dr. G. Carmichael Low was recording in the 
'Bulletin' (vol. lviii. p. 7) a Reeve that still survived although 
its wing was torn off completely, a Yellow-vented Bulbul 
(Pycnonotus tricolor micrus) here was giving an even more 
remarkable example of tenacity of life. It was hatched in 
honeysuckle on the side of the house, and, like most young 
birds of its species, it left the nest much too soon. It had 
spent five days on the ground among tangled herbage, tended 
assiduously by its parents, when we went away for the week- 
end. On our return, late on the Sunday night, one of our 
boys reported that he had picked up a bulbul with only one 
wing and put it in a cage that always stands on our verandah. 
As it seemed to be asleep we did not examine it or put it out 
of its misery at once as we at first intended The next 
morning we found that the parents had already located it 
and were feeding it through the wire. It seemed to be in 
excellent condition except that at the junction of the humerus 
with the radius and ulna the wing had been taken off as 
clearly as if it had been done with a scalpel. It is just possible 
that the injury had been caused by a Peregrine Falcon we had 
seen about for several days, during which time it had stooped 

* a 5 

» *! 

Vol. lviii.] 114 [1938. 

repeatedly on the aviary. We have no alternative suggestion. 
The fact remains that the one-winged bulbul lived, and 
apparently enjoyed good health, for at least six weeks after 
the amputation. Its death took place from no obvious 
cause, following a couple of days lack of appetite. The 
injured limb remained healthy throughout. 

Mr. C. M. N. White sent the two following notes : — 
1. The Races of Glossopsitta concinna (Shaw). 

Peters ' Check List,' iii. p. 157, recognizes no races of this 
bird. Mathews (Bds. Australia, vi. p. 52) says he recognizes 
no races owing to the migratory habit of the species. 

Examination of twenty birds from Australia and eleven 
from Tasmania shows that they are separable with ease. 
In Australian birds the blue crown is strongly marked in the 
male whilst in females the crown is green with a well-defined 
bluish wash. Tasmanian birds appear to have the sexes 
practically alike, and in the whole series examined none have 
a strong blue crown ; the crown in all is much greener than 
typical 0. c. concinna ; in addition in series Tasmanian birds 
are greener, less olive above, and the red on the ear and front 
is paler. 

As regards Mathews' objection because of the migration 
of the species — though his notes show considerable movement 
in Australia — there is no indication of any movement from 
Tasmania to the mainland. In view of this fact and the 
marked difference between the series examined it is necessary 
to recognize : — 

Glossopsitta concinna concinna (Shaw). 

Psittacus concinnus Shaw, Nat. Misc. iii. 1791, p. [57] : 
" New Holland." 

Distribution. — S. Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, 
South Australia. 

Glossopsitta concinna didimus Mathews. 

Glossopsitta concinna didimus Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec. ii. 
1915, p. 127 : Tasmania. 

Distribution. — Tasmania. 

1938.] 115 [Vol. lviii. 

2. The Races of Geopelia striata in Australia. 

Peters, ' Check List,' iii. p. 101, recognizes two races in 
Australia and puts G. placida clelandi Mathews, G. p. melvill- 
ensis Mathews, and G. p. hedleyi Mathews as synonyms of 
G. striata placida. 

Examination of the series in the British Museum shows 
that three races can be recognized : — 

Geopelia striata placida Gould. 

Geopelia placida Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1844, 
p. 55 : Pt. Essington. 

Synonyms are G. p. melvillensis Mathews, Austr. A v. Rec. 
i. 1912, p. 28 : Melville Island, and G. p. hedleyi Mathews, 
ibid. p. 84 : Cape York. 

This race is marked by its small size. Wings of ten examined 
94-99, once 102 mm. 

Distribution. — Northern Territory and Cape York. 

Geopelia striata clelandi Mathews. 

Geopelia placida clelandi Mathews, Nov. Zool. xviii. 1912, 
p. 186 : Coongan River. 

Differs from G. s. placida in being larger ; above much 
more reddish sandy with dark edges less defined ; hind crown 
much lighter, more sandy brown. 

Wings of four examined : — 99, 102, 104, 106 mm. These 
birds are from Carnarvon and the Gascoyne River. 

Distribution. — Mid- west Australia ; exact limits not yet 

Geopelia striata tranquilla Gould. 

Geopelia tranquilla Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1844, 
p. 56 : Liverpool plains and banks of Namoi, New South Wales. 

Larger than G. s. placida ; much darker above, colder and 
greyer in colour and less brown ; black edges broader and 
stronger ; hinder crown much more grey -brown. Under wing- 
coverts and axillaries average darker. 

Wings of twenty birds : 103-110 mm. 

Distribution. — S. Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, 
Queensland north to Townsville. + 

Tmc o»u( St&iw W* TSwwi^uj s* *«cw musk 

Vol. lviii.] 116 [1938. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Macworth-Praed 
sent the following five notes : — 

1 . On the Status of Pogoniulus bilineatus conciliator Friedmann, 

Proc. N. Engl. Zool. Club, 1929, p. 36 : Nyange, Uluguru 
Mountains, Tanganyika Territory. 

Friedmann compared this race with P. b.fischeri (Reichenow) 
Orn. Cent. 1880, p. 181 : Zanzibar, and P. b. jacksoni (Sharpe), 
Bull. B. 0. C. vii. 1897, p. vii : Mau, Kenya Colony ; but 
had only one specimen of P. b. bilineatus (Sundevall) (Efv. Vet. 
Akad. Forhandl. 1850, p. 109 : Natal, South Africa ; and one 
of P. b. fischeri for comparison. 

Recently Mr. Moreau has sent to the British Museum one 
adult female from Uluguru Mountains, and two adult females 
from the Nguru Mountains. Moreau had already sent these 
Uluguru and Nguru specimens to Loveridge, who pronounced 
that they agreed with topotypic birds. These three adult 
specimens from Uluguru and Nguru agree perfectly with 
the long series of P. b. bilineatus in the British Museum. 
Therefore P. b. conciliator becomes a synonym of P. b. bilineatus, 
the distribution of which is from Natal and Zululand through 
the Transvaal and southern Rhodesia to Nyasaland, Portuguese 
East Africa, and the Uluguru and Nguru Mountains, Tangan- 
yika Territory. 

2. On the Races of Trachyphonus erythrocephalus Cabanis. 
Claude Grant, Ibis, 1915, p 448, in a review of this group 

recognized only one race and was of the opinion that T. e. 
versicolor Hartlaub was the young of T. e. erythrocephalus. 

Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. i. 1924, p. 285, also recognizes 
only one race, but in App. 1930, p. 860, he gives four races 
as recognized by Neumann. In view of this discrepancy 
we have re-examined the good series in the British Museum 
collection and find that only three races can be recognized. 
The characters given for T. e. gallarum Neumann, and 
T. e. jacksoni Neumann, are to be found in a series of T. e. 
versicolor Hartlaub, from in and around the type-locality of 
that race. 

1938.] 117 [Vol. lviii. 

The races we are able to recognize are : — 

Trachyphonus erythrocephalus erythrocephalus Cab. 

Trachyphonus erythrocephalus Cabanis, J. f. 0. 1878, p. 206, 
pi. ii. : Kitui, Ukamba, Kenya Colony. 

Forehead and superciliary stripe red. Wing 96-103 mm. 

Distribution. — Southern Kenya Colony and north-eastern 
Tanganyika Territory. 

Trachyphonus erythrocephalus versicolor Hart. 

Trachyphonus versicolor Hartlaub, 0. C. 1882, p. 91 : 
Mongalla District, Southern Sudan ; of which Trachyphonus 
erythrocephalus Jac&som Neumann, J. f. 0. 1928, p. 785 : Wajheir, 
north-eastern Kenya Colony ; and Trachyphonus erythro- 
cephalus gallarum Neumann, J. f. 0. 1928, p. 786 : Bussidimo, 
near Harar, eastern Abyssinia, are synonyms, inasmuch that 
although Neumann gives wing-measurements of 86 to 89 and 

84 to 92 mm. respectively, Friedmann, Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. 
Mus. 1930, pp. 458-459, gives 91 and over for T. e. jacksoni 
and 84 to 92 for T. e. gallarum. Two specimens in the British 
Museum collection from the Sagan River, south-western 
Abyssinia (a locality included by Neumann in his distribution 
of T. e. gallarum), are 92 and 95 mm., and two males from 
Moyale, north-eastern Kenya Colony, in the Jackson Collection 
measure 87 and 90 mm. It would thus appear that T. e. 
versicolor must in itself be considered a variable and perhaps 
largely an intermediate form between T. e. erythrocephalus 
and T. e. shelleyi. 

Forehead and superciliary stripe yellow. Wing 91 to 
96 mm. 

Distribution. — Eastern and southern Abyssinia to southern 
Sudan, northern Kenya Colony, and Uganda. 

Trachyphonus erythrocephalus shelleyi Hartl. 
Trachyphonus shelleyi Hartlaub, Ibis, 1886, p. 106, pi. v. : 
Goolis Mountains, British Somaliland. 

Similar to T. e. erythrocephalus but smaller. Wing 76 to 

85 mm. 

Distribution. — British to northern Italian Somalilands. 

Vol. lviii.] 118 [1938. 

3. On the exact Type-locality of Indicator variegatus Lesson, 

Traite, 1831, p. 155, and the Status of Indicator variegatus 
jubaensis Neumann, Bull. B. 0. C. xxi. 1908, p. 97 : 
Jonte, near Kismayu, southern Italian Somaliland. 

Sclater, Syst. Av. ^Ethiop. i. 1924, p. 287, gives Africa 
only, and we cannot find that a more detailed type-locality has 
been given. Lesson gives no references and gives Africa 
only. The first reference to this bird appears to be that 
of Levaillant, Ois. Afr. v. 1806, p. 135, pi. 241, fig. 2, who 
gives the distribution as " toute la cote de Test d'Afrique 
depuis les forets d'Auteniquoi j usque chez les Caffres." 
We can therefore fix the exact type-locality of Indicator 
variegatus Lesson as : Knysna, Cape Province, South Africa. 

Neumann in the original description of Indicator variegatus 
jubaensis gives the wing-measurement as 97 to 103 and for 
the typical race 105 to 114 mm. There are in the British 
Museum collection specimens from South Africa and Portuguese 
East Africa measuring respectively 103 and 101 mm. This 
overlap into the measurements of Neumann's race, in our 
view, precludes it being accepted, and we are therefore 
of opinion that /. v. jubaensis Neumann must become a 
synonym of Indicator variegatus Lesson. 

4. On the exact Type-locality of Indicator minor minor 

Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool. ix. 1815, p. 140. 
Stephens founded this name on Levaillant 's Plate and 
description in Ois. Afr. v. 1806, p. 137, pi. 242, giving locality 
as Cape of Good Hope. This has been followed by all authors. 
Levaillant, Ois. Afr., states that he found this bird at Swartkop, 
Sondag, and Camdeboo. We can therefore fix the exact 
type-locality of Indicator minor minor Stephens as Zwartkop 
River, Uitenhage Division, Cape Province, South Africa. 

5. On the Status of Indicator minor teitensis Neumann, 

J. f. O. 1900, p. 195 : Taita, southern Kenya Colony. 

Sclater, Syst. Av. yEthiop. i. 1924, p. 288, casts doubt on 
the validity of /. m. teitensis Neum., and Claude Grant, Ibis, 

1938.] 119 [Vol. Iviii. 

1915, p. 433, gives only small differences for this race. 
Zedlitz J. f. O. 1915, p. 13, places it as a race of /. exilis ; 
but his review does not help to elucidate the problem of these 
green-backed Honey-Guides. Van Someren, Nov. Zool. 
xxix. 1922, p. 53, recognizes it. We have carefully examined 
the good series in the British Museum collection and twenty- 
two specimens kindly lent to us by Dr. van Someren, and 
find that there is quite an appreciable amount of individual 
variation, and that the wing-measurements of South African 
specimens (males 88 to 97, females 83 to 88) agree with 
a series from Eastern Africa (males 85 to 95,- females 81 to 
88 mm.). 

As there is no definite character by which South African 
and Eastern African specimens can be distinguished, we 
consider I. m. teitensis Neum. to be a synonym of /. m. minor 
Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool. ix. 1815, p. 140 : Zwartkop 
River, Uitenhage Division, Cape Province. 

One of the specimens lent to us by van Someren, an adult 
female from Unsi, Juba River, southern Italian Somaliland, 
has an exceptionally small wing-measurement of 76 mm., 
but there is no doubt that it is Indicator m. minor. This is 
in keeping with the known fact that birds from the lower 
and middle Juba River area and for a short way down the 
Kenya Colony coast are liable to run small in size, though 
they are seldom so constant as to be recognizable as good 


1 r L 1938 





The four-hundred-and-tenth Meeting of the Club was held 
at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thnrloe Place, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, 
June 8, 1938. 

Chairman : Mr. G. M. Mathews. 

Members present : — Dr. P. H. Manson Bahr ; Dr. D. A. 
Bannerman ; Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; F. J. F. Barrington ; 
Miss M. G. S. Best ; The Hon. G. L. Charteris ; H. P. 0. 
Cleave ; A. Ezra ; Miss J. M. Ferrier ; J. Fisher ; 
Miss E. Godman ; Col. A. E. Hamerton ; B. G. Harrison ; 
Dr. E. Hopkinson ; Dr. K. Jordan ; N. B. Kinnear ; 
Miss E. P. Leach ; Dr. P. R. Lowe ; Lt-Col. H. A. F. 
Magrath ; E. M. Nicholson ; M. E. W. North ; C. W. 
Mackworth-Praed ; W. L. Sclater ; D. Seth-Smith ; 
B. W. Tucker ; H. Whistler. 

Guests of the Glub : — A. H. Chisholm ; W. Meise ; A. J. 


Guests : — Miss L. Lodge ; Willoughby P. Low ; C. L. 
Sibley ; Mrs. C. L. Sibley. 

Members, 27 ; Guests of the Club, 3 ; Guests, 4. 

Mr. B. W. Tucker gave an account of a trip made by 
Mr. L. S. V. Venables and himself to Finnish and Norwegian 
[July 13, 1938.] a vol. lviii 

Vol. lviii.] 122 [1938. 

Lapland in the summer of 1937 for the purpose of field- 
observations : — 

He showed a number of slides illustrating types of country 
and typical habitats of different species, supplemented by 
others of some of the more characteristic Lapland birds taken 
by Mr. H. N. Southern, including Mealy Redpoll (Carduelis 
f. flammed), Lapland Bunting (Calcarius I. lapponicus), Snow- 
Bunting (Plectrophenax n. nivalis), Northern Willow-Tit 
(Parus atricapillus borealis), Fieldfare (Turdus pilaris), Red- 
wing (Turdus m. musicus), Bluethroat (Luscinia s. svecica), 
Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) , Rough-legged 
Buzzard (Buteo I. lagopus), and Temminck's Stint (Calidris 

The observers divided their time between the forested 
country, varied with tracts of swamp, of the Pasvik valley 
and the open tundra and fell region beyond the tree limit 
on the north shore of the Varanger Fjord. The season was 
a very hot and forward one. In the forest belt Wax wings 
(Bombycilla garrulus) were frequent and Parrot Crossbills 
(Loxia pytyopsittacus) were met with in one district. In 
addition to the forest species already mentioned the haunts 
and habits of the Siberian Jay (Perisoreus infaustus), Pine 
Grosbeak (Pinicola e. enucleator) , Lapp Tit (Parus ductus), 
Eversmann's Warbler (Phylloscopus b. borealis), and others 
were described. The swamps of the Pasvik valley are rich 
in waders. Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa I. lapponica) were 
found breeding, as well as the commoner Greenshank (Tringa. 
nebularia), Spotted Redshank (Tringa erythropus), Wood- 
Sandpiper (Tringa glareola) , Whimbrel (Numenius ph. phseopus) , 
and Northern Golden Plover (Charadrius apricarius altifrons). 

In the Varanger Fjord region many of the characteristic 
species of the Pasvik valley are absent and others rare or 
absent inland take their place, for example Snow and Lapland 
Buntings, Red-throated Pipit (Anthus cervinus), Turnstone 
(Arenaria i. interpres), Purple Sandpiper (Calidris m. maritima), 
Red-necked Phalarope (Phalaropus lobaius), and Dotterel 
(Charadrius morinellus). Buffon's Skuas (Stercorarius longi- 

1938.] 123 [Vol. lviii. 

caudus) were evidently not breeding in the district in 1937. 
Excellent opportunities were afforded for observing Steller's 
Eider (Polysticta stelleri), of which a flock of 9 males and 
4 females was present in the now well-known locality for this 
species on the Varanger Fjord. For some reason which is 
anything but clear, this appears to be a non-breeding colony 
with a fluctuating population, though broods are stated 
to have been seen in 1924. 

The distribution and status of birds in the districts visited 
have been very fully dealt with by Dr. H. M. S. Blair in his 
paper on the " Birds of East Finmark " (' Ibis/ 1936), so that 
it is unnecessary to dilate on this subject here, but two additions 
were made to Dr. Blair's list. A pair of Great Tits (Parus m. 
major) with a fledged brood was met with at Svanik, over 
69° N., and Twites (Carduelis f. flavirostris) , including a male 
in song and a party of about half-a-dozen, probably a family, 
were observed on Vardo, this representing apparently an 
extension of the recorded range of the species on the 
Norwegian coast. 

Mr. A. H. Chisholm, an officer of the Royal Australasian 
Ornithologists' Union, and a former editor of ' The Emu,' 
who is in England on holiday, gave a brief talk on some features 
of bird-life in Australia : — 

He showed slides illustrating the beautiful nests of various 
species of Robins and Flycatchers, as well as other small birds, 
and in particular slides relating to the remarkable Lyre-Birds 
and Bower- Birds. 

Suggesting that the Lyre -Bird was the most accomplished 
of all vocal mimics, as well as possessing beautiful " natural " 
notes, Mr. Chisholm pointed out that it was also a spectacular 
dancer and a glorious artist in display. Both species of Lyre- 
Birds, he added, bred in mid-winter, and it was then that 
the finest performances were given. 

The Satin Bower-Bird was described by the lecturer as an 
architect, a decorator, a dancer, and a painter. All of these 
accomplishments related to the bower, or play-harbour, 


Vol. lviii.] 124 [1938. 

which was quite distinct from the nest. The bower of the 
Satin Bower-Bird was always decorated with blue objects 
(flowers, feathers, etc.), with yellowish-green objects as a second 
choice. The painting ability of the bird was manifest in that 
it munched charcoal into a paste and plastered the " paint " 
on each of the sticks of the inside wall of the bower. It was 
a mistake to suppose that this species of Bower-Bird was 
fond of shining objects ; that predeliction was a weakness 
of its relatives, the Ghlamydera Bower- Birds. Mr. Chisholm 
added the opinion that bower-building originated on a sexual 
basis, but was now largely recreational. The birds practised, 
as it were, " art for art's sake." 

Mr. A. J. van Rossem sent the following descriptions of 
twenty-one new races of Fringillidse and Icteridae from Mexico 
and Guatemala : — 

Five years ago, when visiting England, the writer was 
impressed with the wealth of Mexican material originally 
accumulated by Salvin and Godman and later incorporated 
into the collections of the British Museum. At that time he 
was concerned chiefly with fixing the identity of various types 
of American birds and was obliged to defer study of the general 
collections until the present year. His thanks are offered 
to the Trustees for permission to use the collections and to the 
Staff for assistance in many ways. 

The ornithology of Mexico is far from well known. Certain 
areas in the south and east have been fairly well investigated, 
although much remains to be learned concerning even these, 
and most of the western parts are almost terra incognita as 
regards the distribution or character of much of its bird-life. 
It is with the west that the present studies have to do and 
most of the following descriptions are from that region. 

Saltator grandis richardsoni, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Similar to Saltator grandis vigor sii Gray of 
Nayarit and Sinaloa, but size smaller ; coloration more 

1938.] 125 [Vol. lviii. 

fulvescent below and more olive (less ashy) grey above. 
Young more olive and darker green (less yellowish) above. 

Distribution. — South-western Mexico, from Jalisco (San 
Marcos near Zapotlan) south through Colima (Plains of 
Colima) and Guerrero (Acapulco ; Dos Arroyos ; Tierra 
Colorada) to Oaxaca (Putla). 

Type. — In the British Museum. Female adult. Plains of 
Colima, Colima, Mexico, January 19, 1890 ; collected by 
W. B. Richardson. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 

Remarks. — It now becomes necessary to restrict the type- 
locality of 8. g. vigorsii, and I therefore designate Mazatlan, 
Sinaloa, since the measurements given by Vigors are certainly 
those of the northern race. 

Measurements (in mm.). — 

S. g. vigorsii. 

Wing. Tail. 

2 males 104-106 95-96 

3 females 102-103 92-95 

S. g. richardsoni. 

Wing. Tail. 

1 male 99 90 

1 female 97 92 

5 unsexed 95-99 86-93 

Buarremon virenticeps colimas, subsp. nov. 

Description. — As compared with Buarremon virenticeps 
virenticeps Bonaparte of south- central Mexico, brighter and 
more golden green dorsally, median crown stripe more con- 
spicuous ; occiput and nape, together with supra-auricular 
stripe, brighter and more yellowish (less green). 

Distribution. — Known only from Volcan de Colima, Jalisco. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Sierra Nevada 
de Colima, Jalisco, Mexico, April 8, 1899 ; collected by 
W. B. Richardson. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 

Remarks. — The new race is described from nine specimens, 
all from Volcan de Colima at altitudes recorded as from 
8000 to 12,000 feet. For comparison there are an equal 

Vol. lviii.] 126 [1938. 

number from the Valley of Mexico, the most likely source of 
Bonaparte's type. 

The typical B. v. virenticeps show an interesting condition 
in the ventral plumage, in that scarcely any two are alike. 
Some have white median shaft-streaks, which, in varying 
degree, break up the uniformity of the chest and sides ; 
others show definite patches of albinism on these areas. 
The Jalisco birds, on the other hand, are quite uniform, 
with a well-defined chest-band to separate the white throat 
from the white median underparts. 

Atlapetes pileatus canescens, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Similar to Atlapetes pileatus pileatus Wagler 
of the Valley of Mexico, but upper parts olive-grey instead of 
olive -brown ; yellow of underparts purer and brighter and 
flanks very much paler ; size larger than A. p. pileatus, the 
wings of males in worn plumage averaging 70 mm., while 
A. p. pileatus in similar condition averages 64 mm. 

Distribution. — High mountains of Guerrero (Amula, 6000 ft. ; 
Omilteme, 8000 ft.). 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Omilteme, 
Guerrero, Mexico, July 1888 ; collected by Mrs. H. H. Smith. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 

Remarks. — This race is based on fourteen specimens, all 
from the localities named above. For comparison with the 
typical race there are seventeen from the Valley of Mexico, 
the probable source of Wagler's type (which I have examined 
in Munich), and which include specimens in every stage of 
plumage. Eight specimens from various localities in Oaxaca 
appear to be typical of A. p. pileatus both in colour and size. 
Five specimens from Jalisco (Volcan de Colima and Zapotlan) 
likewise are A. p. pileatus, but are slightly intermediate 
toward the extreme north-western race A. p. dilutus. 

Melozone biarcuatum chiapensis, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Similar to Melozone biarcuatum biarcuatum of 
the Pacific slope of northern Nicaragua and of Guatemala, 

1938.] 127 [Vol. lviii. 

but dorsal coloration, sides, and under tail- coverts darker 
brown ; face, throat, and median underparts more purely 
white and lacking the buffy or avellaneous tinge present in 
M.b. biarcuatum. 

Distribution. — Central and southern Chiapas. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Female adult. Tuxtla, 
Chiapas, Mexico, March 18, 1897 ; collected by W. B. Richard- 
son. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 

Be marks. — Ridgway (Birds of Nor. & Mid. Amer. 1901, 
433, footnote) has already commented on certain differences 
shown by the very limited material at his disposal. 

There is no abrupt transition between the northern and 
southern extremes, and therefore the Chiapas-Guatemala 
boundary may, for the time being, be taken as an arbitrary 
division so far as the Pacific coast is concerned. The new 
race is based on nine specimens from Volcan Tacana (3) ; 
Tapachula (1) ; and Tuxtla (5). There is ample southern 
material for comparison. 

Plagiospiza superciliosa palliata, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Similar to Plagiospiza superciliosa superciliosa 
(Swainson) of southern Mexico, but coloration paler throughout ; 
dorsally redder as well as paler ; central rectrices grey instead 
of olive or olive -brown laterally ; ventrally purer grey with 
the throat and median abdominal region nearly pure white. 

Distribution. — Mountains of Chihuahua (Pinos Altos ; Jesus 
Maria ; near Tutuaca ; Tosonachic) and extreme eastern 
Sonora (Bavispe River). 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Near Tutuaca, 
Chihuahua, Mexico, altitude 9500 feet, March 30, 1888 ; 
collected by William Lloyd. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 

Remarks. — The series of seventy-six specimens in the 
British Museum, six of which are P. s. palliata, covers most of 
the range of the species. Specimens from Vera Cruz, the 
Valley of Mexico, Puebla, etc., are the darkest and the most 
olivaceous dorsally ; those from Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi, 
Jalisco, Nayarit, and Durango are slightly redder dorsally, 

Vol. lviii.] 128 [1938. 

and also are pale throughout. There is the temptation to 
provide these central birds with a name since the characters 
are uniform over a great area. However, for the present 
they are considered as intermediates. 

Aimophila acuminata nayaritensis, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Compared with Aimophila acuminata acuminata 
Salvin and Godman of Morelos and Puebla, upper parts darker 
and duller (less reddish) brown ; median crown stripe narrower, 
and streaking on hind neck, flanks, and back heavier and darker; 
tail decidedly shorter (two males 70-71 ; 1 female 70 mm.). 

Distribution. — Known only from the vicinity of Tepic, 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Tepic, 
Nayarit, Mexico, June 8, 1889 ; collected by W. B. Richardson. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 

Remarks. — Although based on only three specimens, the 
present race is quite distinct through several characters and 
I have no hesitancy in providing it with a name. 

Aimophila acuminata guerrerensis, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Compared with Aimophila acuminata acumi- 
nata, upper parts paler and more orange (less reddish) brown ; 
streaking on upper parts and tertials narrower and more 
brownish (less blackish), and flanks and under tail-coverts 

Distribution. — Apparently confined to the State of Guerrero. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Acaguazotla, 
Guerrero, Mexico, October 18, 1888 ; collected by Mrs. H. H. 
Smith. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 

Remarks. — The nine specimens of A. a. guerrerensis are from 
Acaguazotla, Acapulco, and Tierra Colorada. Worn summer 
and fresh fall plumages are represented in the series. This 
is also the case with A. a. nayaritensis and A. a. acuminata. 
In the latter case there is some question as to the proper 
spelling of the type-locality which is usually quoted as Yautepec. 
On the label of the type, a Deppe- taken specimen secured 
from the Berlin Museum, it is either Guantepec or Yuantepec. 

1938.] 129 [Vol. lviii. 

Specimens from Jalisco (7) and Colima (3) seem to be 
A. a. acuminata, but perhaps actually are intergrades between 
the new forms described above. 

Passerculus sandwiehensis wetmorei, subsp. no v. 

Similar in size to Passerculus sandwiehensis brunnescens 
Butler of the southern Mexican highlands, but bill slightly 
larger and dorsal coloration very much darker and browner ; 
superciliary stripe entirely yellow, save for the extreme 
posterior portion. Very similar in general coloration to the 
darkest and brownest specimens of Passerculus sandwiehensis 
alaudinus Bonaparte of the San Francisco Bay region of 
California, but underparts much less heavily streaked. 

Distribution. — So far as known, the high mountains of the 
Pacific cordillera in extreme south-western Guatemala. 

Type, — In the British Museum. Male adult. Hacienda 
Chancol, Guatemala, altitude 10,000 feet, June 17, 1897 ; 
collected by W. B. Richardson. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 

Remarks — The eight specimens collected by Richardson at 
Hacienda Chancol between June 11 and 17, 1897, are very 
uniform in appearance. They are worn, but not excessively so, 
and have every appearance of breeding birds. In winter 
plumage they must be very richly coloured indeed, if one may 
judge by the analogy of P. s. brunnescens. 

After Dr. Wetmore returned from Guatemala he told me 
that parts of the highlands had every appearance of being 
suitable for colonies of savannah sparrows, and it was his 
information that led me to investigate Richardson's collections 
from that country. Therefore the race may most appro- 
priately be named for him. 

Measurements (in mm.). — 

W^. Tail. ^ .S. *™»- 

4 ma les 68-71 47-51 10-5-12-0 6-1-6-8 19-7-21-1 

4 females ... . 62-65 43-46 100-110 6-0-6-3 19-0-20-0 

Since writing the above, we have received Peters and 
Griscom's " Geographical Variation in the Savannah Sparrow " 
(Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 80, 1938). The Guatemala birds 

a 5 

Vol. lviii.] 130 [1938. 

are definitely not P. s. brunnescens with which those authors 
identify them (p. 471). 

Volatinia jacarini diluta, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Females, young male, and adult males in 
winter plumage paler and more slaty (less buffy) brown than 
Volatinia jacarini atronitens Todd of eastern Mexico and 
Central America. Adult summer males of the two races appear 
to be indistinguishable. 

Distribution. — Western Mexico from Guerrero (Tierra Colo- 
rada ; Acapulco ; Dos Arroyos ; Altos de Camaron ; Amula) 
north through Jalisco (Bolanos ; Zapotlan) and Nayarit 
(Santiago ; San Bias) to Sinaloa (Mazatlan). 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male in winter dress, 
just commencing the prenuptial moult. San Bias, Nayarit, 
Mexico, May 5, 1889 ; collected by W. B. Richardson. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 

Remarks. — The winter plumage of females and young males 
of both races is more buffy than the summer plumage ; there- 
fore seasonally comparable material must be used in making 
determinations. There are twenty-six specimens of V. j. 
diluta in the British Museum and, of course, large series of 
V. j. atronitens from Mexico and Central America. 

Pipilo maculatus chiapensis, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Nearest to Pipilo maculatus repetens Griscom 
of the Pacific cordillera of western Guatemala and south- 
eastern Chiapas in relatively large bill and extension of black 
over the back ; differs, however, in the reduced amount of 
white streaking dorsally and the much browner and more 
rufescent lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts ; size 
(except for bill) smaller than P. m. repetens. 

Distribution. — The central Sierras of Chiapas. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. San Cristobal, 
Chiapas, Mexico, May 14, 1897 ; collected by W. B. Richardson. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 

Remarks. — The nine specimens of P. m. chiapensis are from 
San Cristobal and Comitan. This same mountain range has 

1938.] 131 [Vol. Iviii. 

produced strongly characterized races of other species, so it 
is not surprising to find a distinct race of the highly variable 
Pipilo maculatus there also. 
Measurements (in mm.). — 

Wing. Tail. Ex P° sed ? e P th Tarsus 

& eulmen. at base. 

7 males 79-85 96-100 14-5-15-8 10-0-10-8 28-0-29-5 

- Pipilo torquatus brunnescens, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Similar to Pipilo torquatus torquatus Du Bus of 
the mountains of Vera Cruz, but flanks and under tail- coverts 
browner and darker ; throat and superciliary stripe more 
purely white. 

Distribution. — High mountains of Oaxaca (La Parada ; 
Tonaguia ; Oaxaca ; Totontepec). 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Totontepec, 
Oaxaca, Mexico, February 1889 ; collected by M. Trujillo. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 

Remarks. — Six specimens, all very uniform in characters, 
have been examined from the above-listed localities. 

• Pipilo torquatus guerrerensis, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Palest of the races of Pipilo torquatus. Differs 
from Pipilo torquatus torquatus Du Bus in paler and more 
greyish sides, flanks, and under tail- coverts, more purely 
white superciliary stripe, and in brighter and lighter edge 
of wing and lesser wing- coverts. 

Distribution. — The Sierra Madre of Guerrero. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Sex not designated, but 
probably a male. Omilteme, Guerrero, Mexico, July 1888 ; 
collected by Mrs. H. H. Smith. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 

Remarks. — The series from Omilteme consists of five adults 
and a juvenile. In the latter specimen the post- juvenile 
plumage is apparent in many places, thus showing that the 
colour- characters given are not the result of fade or wear. 

The relationships of the spotted To whees of southern Mexico 
are somewhat involved. Certain material examined leads me 
to suspect that P. virescens, P. torquatus, and P. maculatus 

Vol. lviii.] 132 [1938. 

are conspecific, but careful collecting and field-observations 
by competent workers will be necessary to determine the 

- Pipilo fuscus tenebrosus, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Nearest in colour to Pipilo fuscus fuscus 
Swainson, but coloration very much darker throughout — in 
fact, by far the darkest race of the "fuscus " group of brown 
Towhees ; size smaller than P. /. fuscus, save for the bill which 
is slightly longer and thicker at base. 

Distribution. — Jalisco, where evidently confined to the 
region about Lake Chapala (Zapotlan 5 ; Zacoalco 3). 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Zapotlan, 
Jalisco, Mexico, November 23, 1889 ; collected by W. B. 
Richardson. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 

Remarks. — There is obviously much to be learned about the 
distribution of brown Towhees in Mexico, and when all the 
data are in it seems likely that additional races will be un- 
covered. The typical race P. f. fuscus occurs in northern 
Jalisco, and there are four specimens from Bolanos which 
agree minutely with that form in colour and measurements. 

Measurements (in mm.), — 

Wing. Tail. 

7 male tenebrosus 85-92 83-91 

1 female tenebrosus ... 84 85 

Junco phseonotus colimse, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Similar in size to Junco phseonotus phseonotus 
Wagler of the central Mexican plateau, but entire coloration 
decidedly darker and flanks browner. 

Distribution. — Sierra Nevada de Colima, Jalisco, Mexico. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Sierra Nevada 
de Colima, Jalisco, Mexico, April 9, 1889 ; collected by 
W. Lloyd and W. B. Richardson. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 99.2.1. 

Remarks. — The seven specimens were collected in November, 
December, and early April. The latter are worn and have 
every appearance of being breeding birds. Altitudes recorded 
on the labels vary from 10,000 to 12,000 feet. 

1938.] 133 [Vol. lviii. 

Junco phseonotus australis, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Similar to Junco phseonotus phseonotus Wagler,, 
but upper parts brighter and more extensively red, particularly 
on tertials and lower back ; underparts more brownish-grey, 
particularly on flanks ; bill decidedly larger and wing and tail 

Distribution. — The Sierra Madre of Guerrero. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Omilteme, 
Guerrero, Mexico, altitude 8000 feet, August 1, 1888 ; collected 
by Mrs. H. H. Smith. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 

Remarks. — The nine specimens (five adults and four juveniles): 
are very uniform in characters and the adults, although worn ? 
are not excessively so. 

Measurements (in mm.). — 

Wing. Tail. Exposed Depth 

culmen. at base. 

3 males and 2 with sex\ _ A __ aK „* ,■,-,'«/» » a « 

not recorded / 70 " 77 65 ~ 71 H-5-120 7-4-7-6 

Guiraca caerulea deltarhyncha, subsp. nov. 

- Description. — Bill shaped much like that of Guiraca cserulea 
lazula (Lesson) of Central America — that is to say, thick at 
base, sharply pointed, and with the outlines relatively straight ; 
size of bill, however, smaller. Coloration of adult males 
darker and more purplish blue than G. c. lazula, darker even 
than G. c. eurhyncha Coues of eastern Mexico, the backs of 
worn individuals being nearly black. Coloration of females 
much like G. c. eurhyncha, although perhaps slightly paler 
and less brownish in series. 

Distribution. — Western Mexico from Guerrero (Amula ; 
Chilpancingo) north through Colima (Plains of Colima) and 
Jalisco (Chapala ; Lake Chapala ; Zapotlan ; Santana near 
Guadalajara) to Nayarit (Tepic) and extreme southern Sonora 

Type. — In the British Museum. Female adult. Tepic, 
Nayarit, Mexico, June 8, 1889 ; collected by W. B. Richardson. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 


Vol. lviii.] 134 [1938. 

Remarks. — The race here described occupies the territory 
in western Mexico which was left blank, so far as breeding 
birds are concerned, when Dwight and Griscom (American 
Museum Novitates, No. 257) reviewed the races of Guiraca 

Bill measurements often adult males (in mm.). — 

Exposed culmen. Depth at base. 

17-0-18-5 15-5-16-0 

Spinus pinus perplexus, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Differs from Spinus pinus pinus (Wilson) of 
North America and Spinus pinus macropterus (Du Bus) of 
Mexico in more slaty (less brownish) and slightly darker 
dorsal coloration and more obsoletely streaked underparts ; 
size slightly smaller than S. p. pinus and decidedly smaller 
than S. p. macropterus. 

Distribution. — Mountains of southern Chiapas (San Andres) 
and south-western Guatemala (Chancol ; Chuipache ; Quetzal- 
tenango) . 

Type. — In the British Museum. Female adult. San Andres, 
€hiapas, Mexico, May 11, 1897 ; collected by W. B. Richardson. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 

Remarks. — The situation regarding the species S. pinus 
and S. atriceps is too involved to be discussed here in full. 
Briefly, it may be stated that these species give every evidence 
of undergoing complete amalgamation and what the final 
result will be can only be conjectured. In typical form 
S. atriceps is a green bird, devoid of streaking, with the pileum 
black, the chin dusky, and with a long, slender, aciculate bill 
which is very different from the conical acute bill of S. pinus. 
Were it not for the very differently shaped bills it might be 
argued that but one dimorphic species was present. Both 
S. atriceps and S. pinus attain what is essentially the 
adult plumage at the time of the post-juvenal moult. Inter- 
mixture of the two seems to produce a bird with immaculate, 
pale grey underparts in most cases. The dorsal colouring 
seems usually to be like S. pinus, but green-edged wing- 

1938.] 135 [Vol. lviii. 

coverts and yellow-green rumps are at once noticeable. Bills 
vary, but usually tend toward the S. pinus type. 

Arranged by localities the British Museum series show the 
following variations : — 

San Andres, Chiapas. Two pure female S. p. per plexus 
one female S. p. perplexus with some S. atriceps characters. 

Hacienda Chancol, Guatemala. Three pure S. p. perplexus 
including a juvenile ; one female intermediate ; one male 
intermediate. The last is fully adult (June and probably 
breeding) and has the black cap of S. atriceps, a mixed grey 
and green back which shows obsolete streaking, immaculate 
grey underparts, and the bill of S. p. perplexus. 

Chuipache, Guatemala. One female S. p. perplexus ; 
two female intergrades. 

Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. One pure male S. atriceps 
(the type) ; one pure male S. p. perplexus ; one male of mixed 

San Marco, Guatemala. Six pure S. atriceps, including 
two young birds just finishing the post- ju venal moult into 
winter plumage. The sexes seem to be alike and both young 
are taking on the adult plumage at this time. 

Measurements (in mm.). — 

S. p. perplexus. 

Wing. Tail. Exposed Depth 

6 culmen. at base. 

2 males 71-71 44-46 9-0-9-5 6-5-7-2 

4 females 67-69 41-44 9-5-10-0 6-3-7-2 

S. atriceps. 
Exposed culmen. Depth at base. 

5 males (bills only) 11-0-12-1 6-4-6-8 

Spinus notatus griscomi, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Resembles Spinus notatus forreri (Salvin and 
Godman) of Durango and northward, but coloration brighter 
throughout ; lighter and purer (less greenish) yellow below ; 
brighter (less olive) green above. Differs from Spinus notatus 

Vol. lviii.] 136 [1938. 

notatus (Du Bus) of eastern Mexico in lighter coloration,; 
the males lighter and more purely yellow below and lighter 
green above ; the females lighter and much greener below, 
and lighter and duller green above. 

Distribution. — Western Mexico from Guerrero (Omilteme) 
north through Jalisco (Volcan de Colima ; Sierra Madre de 
Nayarit ; Zapotlan ; Bolanos) to Nayarit (Santiago ; Tepic). 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Volcan de 
Colima, Jalisco, Mexico, December 31, 1889 ; collected by 
W. B. Richardson. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 

Remarks. — Ludlow Griscom (Orn. Guerrero, 1934, p. 416) 
has previously indicated the needed subdivision of the black- 
headed Siskins of western Mexico, and such action has been 
delayed only because the status of the Durango birds needed 
clarification. I have recently examined the British Museum 
type of 8. n. forreri Salvin and Godman. It is without 
question typical of the northern race which extends from 
Durango north through Chihuahua, Sinaloa, and eastern 
Sonora, and it is the southern race, therefore, which requires 
a name. Incidentally, the supposition of Ridgway that the 
type of forreri is in reality a female proves to be well 

Icterus chrysater mayensis, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Size smallest of any of the races of Icterus 
chrysater. Males indistinguishable in colour from the males 
of Icterus chrysater chrysater (Lesson) of Central America and 
Icterus chrysater giraudii Cassin of Colombia and Venezuela. 
Females similar in colour to chrysater — that is to say, duller 
and almost invariably washed with green above as compared 
with males. 

Distribution. — Northern portion of the Yucatan Peninsula. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Peto, Yuca- 
tan, Mexico, April 1888 ; collected by G. F. Gaumer. Brit. 
Mus. Reg. no. 

Remarks. — The series of 12 specimens are from Peto (6), 
Izamal (2), Tuloom Island (2), and Meco Island (2). The 

1938.] 137 [Vol. lviii. 

few specimens examined from British Honduras appear to 
be intermediate, but nearest to /. c. chrysater. 
Measurements (in mm.). — 

Wing. Tail. Culmen from base. 

8 adult males 95-99 96-105 22-5-24-2 


Icterus graduacauda dickey se, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Similar to Icterus graduacauda graduacauda 
Lesson, but size larger and bill thicker at base, coloration of the 
yellow areas, both dorsally and ventrally, lighter and brighter, 
although this character is most pronounced in the males. 

Distribution. — The Sierra Madre of Guerrero. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Xautipa, 
Guerrero, Mexico, July 1888 ; collected by Mrs. H. H. Smith. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 

Remarks. — Nine specimens of this race are available from 
Rincon, Omilteme, and Xautipa. Four are adult and five 
are juvenile, and all are in a stage of moult which shows both 
old and new plumages. The juveniles show the same com- 
parative colour- characters as do the adults. 

Measurements (in mm.). — 

Wing. Tail. Depth of bill 

at Dase. 

2 adult males 103-104 104-104 11-8-12-3 

2 adult females .. moult moult 11-8-12-1 

Icterus graduacauda nayaritensis, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Similar in size to Icterus graduacauda gradua- 
cauda, but adult male paler and brighter yellow ; female 
duller and much more olive dorsally and duller yellow ventrally. 

Distribution. — Known only from the vicinity of Tepic. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Tepic, 
Nayarit, Mexico, May 29, 1889 ; collected by W. B. Richardson. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 

Remarks. — This Oriole follows the trend observable in several 
other species in the genus, in that sex -differences in plumage 


Vol. lviii.] 138 [1938. 

tend to be obscured southerly and to become very much 
accentuated in the north-west. Perhaps the most outstanding 
example is that of Icterus pustulatus, the sexes of which are 
practically indistinguishable in Costa Rica, but which pro- 
gressively diverge in characters northerly and become radically 
different in north-west Mexico. 

Only two specimens of/, g. nayaritensis have been examined, 
but they are so different from specimens from other parts of 
the species range that it seems permissible to provide them 
with a name. 

Mr. N. B. Kinnear sent the following description of a new 
species of Sheppardia : — 

Sheppardia bensoni, sp. nov. 

Description. — Above brownish -olive, lores white, superciliary 
streak bluish-grey, quills blackish-grey ; the outer edge of 
primaries 1-5 paler, the remainder edged brownish -olive, 
tail similar. Below uniform orange -brown, except in the 
middle of the abdomen which is rather paler, and in some 
specimens white, or nearly so. 

Soft Parts. — Bill black ; feet pale mauve ; soles yellow ; 
iris grey- brown. 

Distribution. — Chinteche District, West Nyasa District, 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult. Near Nkata 
Bay, Chinteche District, West Nyasa District, Nyasaland. 
Collected by C. W. Benson on 15 April, 1938. Collector's 
no. 1224. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1938.6.17.1. 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 75 ; tail 59 ; culmen from 
base 16 ; tarsus 21 mm. 

Remarks. — This bird resembles the plate of Sheppardia 
gunningi Haagar, Ann. Trans v. Mus. vol. i. no. 3, 1909, but 
differs in the colour of the under surface. The supraocular 
streak of S. gunningi is coloured white in the plate, but in 
S. bensoni this colour is concealed by grey feathers, except 
in front of the eye. 

1938.] 139 [Vol. lviii. 

Measurements of five further specimens examined : — Two 
males, wing 75-77 ; three females, wing 67-71 mm. 

This new bird is named in honour of the collector, Mr. C. W. 
Benson, who has made some very remarkable discoveries 
in Nyasaland. 

Mr. R. E. Moreau sent the following description of a new 

Artisornis : — 

Artisornis winifredse, sp. no v. 

Description. — Whole of the upper parts olive-green, except 
the forehead and crown which are intermixed with rufous- 
brown. Below chin whitish, the throat, ear-coverts, side of 
face and chest pale rufous-brown, not being quite so deep 
in colour as the crown of the head ; remainder of under parts 
pale olive -green which is lighter in tone than the upper parts 
and has a yellowish tinge. 

Soft Parts. — Upper mandible black, lower whitish horn, 
dark at tip, feet brown-black. 

Distribution. — Uluguru Mts., Morogoro District, Tanganyika 

Type. — In the British Museum, male, Kinole Forest, 
north Uluguru, Tanganyika Territory, collected by R. E. 
Moreau on July 11, 1937. Collector's no. 4170. Brit. 
Mus. Reg. no. 1938.6.18.1. 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 54 ; tail 51 ; culmen from 
base 17 ; tarsus 23 mm. 

Remarks. — It is possible that the specimen is not fully adult, 
and the fact that the rufous-brown feathers of the head are 
intermixed with those of olive-green, and that some of the 
feathers on the belly are faintly barred, rather points to this. 

For the present this bird has been placed in the genus 
Artisornis, but is is doubtful whether this is correct. It agrees 
with Artisornis in the shape of the wing and bill, but has 
a shorter tarsus and longer tail in proportion to the length 
of the wing. 

This new bird is named in honour of my wife. 

Vol. lviii.] 140 [1938. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following seven notes : — 

(1) On the Status of Buccanodon leucotis kenyse (Bowen), Proc. 

Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1930, p. 3 : Mem, Kenya Colony. 

Through the kindness of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia we have been able to examine an adult male 
female of the series on which Bowen founded this name. 

We have carefully compared these specimens with the type 
and series in the British Museum collection of Buccanodon 
leucotis kilimense (Shelley), ' Ibis,' 1889, p. 477 : Taveta, Taita 
District, southern Kenya Colony, and find that they agree 
well with these, and that the characters given by Bowen 
do not hold good. Therefore Smilorhis leucotis kenyse, Bowen 
becomes a synonym of Buccanodon leucotis kilimense (Shelley). 

(2) On the Status of (A) Barbatula pusillus lollesheid van 

Someren, Nov. Zool. xxxvii, 1932, p. 280 : Serenli, 
Juba River, southern Italian Somaliland ; and (B) 
Pogoniulus pusillus eupterus Grote, Orn. Monatsb. 
1928, p. 78 : Ukerwe Island, Lake Victoria, Tanganyika 

(A) Through the kindness of Dr. van Someren we have had 
the loan of the type and other specimens of B. p. lollesheid. 
In general colour and markings these agree perfectly with 
Pogoniulus p. affinis Reichw. Orn. Cent. 1879, p. 114 ; Kipini, 
mouth of Tana River, eastern Kenya Colony. The wing- 
measurement of the type of B. p. lollesheid, a male, is 49 mm., 
as are two other females, one from the same place, and 
another from Neboi, Juba River ; and a female from Jebier, 
Juba River, has the wing 50 mm. Specimens from the 
Tana River area have wings 50-53 mm. ; south-eastern 
Kenya Colony inland as far west as Voi and eastern Tanganyika 
Territory (Tanga, Dar-es- Salaam) have wings of 51-53 mm., 
and specimens from south-western Kenya Colony and the 
Kilimanjaro area are 54-58 mm. A male from Chanler's 
Falls, northern Uaso Nyiro River, has a wing of 51 mm. 

1938.] 141 [Vol. lviii. 

Van Someren gives 46-50 mm. for his B. p. lollesheid, but 
none of the specimens he has sent us are below 49 mm. Birds 
from the Juba River area measure 49-50, and those from the 
Tana River area 50-53 mm. The difference between 
P. p. lollesheid and P. p. affinis is one millimetre, with an 
overlap of one millimetre, a difference that does not allow 
of the former being recognized as a valid race. 

Two adult males (wings 55 mm.) from Ngare Nairobi, west 
Kilimanjaro, north-eastern Tanganyika Territory, collected 
by Moreau on March 6, 1933 (Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1933.7.13.36 
and 37) are much more greyish-olive below than normal 
specimens of P. p. affinis, but another adult unsexed (wing 
55 mm.) collected by Robin Kemp at Rombo, Kilimanjaro, 
on June 18, 1910 (Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1910.12.26.97) is normally 
coloured. Moreau 's specimens must therefore be considered 
in the category of individual variation. 

(B) Grote gives as character for his Pogoniulus pusillus 
eupterus wing longer 53-58 mm., but as this measurement 
agrees with specimens from western Kenya Colony and the 
Kilimanjaro area, we are unable to recognize this race. 

(3) On the Status of Indicator exilis erlangeri Zedlitz, Orn. 

Monatsb. 1913, p. 59 : Afgoi, southern Italian Somali- 

Zedlitz places his I. erlangeri as a race of I. exilis, and in 
J. f. O. 1915, p. 13, gives the wing-measurement as 80-84 mm. ; 
which exceeds the wing-measurements of the I. exilis group, 
i. e., males 72-79, females 65-72 mm., but comes within 
the measurement of Indicator minor minor Stephens, i. e., 
81-97 mm. As we can see no character by which this race 
can be distinguished, we consider P e. erlangeri to be a synonym 
of P m. minor. 

(4) On the Status of (A) Melignothes pachyrhynchus Heuglin, 

J. f. O. 1864, p. 266 : Bongo, Bahr-el-Ghazal ; (B) 
Indicator pygmseus Reichenow, J. f. O. 1892, pp. 24, 
132 : Bukoba, north-western Tanganyika Territory ; 

Vol. lviii.] 142 [1938. 

(C) Melignothes meliphilus Oberholser, Proc. U.S. Nat. 
Mus. xxviii. 1905, p. 869 : Taveta, south-eastern Kenya 
Colony ; (D) Indicator narokensis Jackson, Bull. B. O. C. 
xix. 1906, p. 20 : Doinyo Narok ; and (E) Indicator 
appelator Vincent, Bull. B. O. C. liii. 1933, p. 130 : 
nearZobue, Portuguese East Africa-Nyasaland Boundary. 

(A) Oberholser, Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. xxviii. 1905, pp. 871- 
874, reviews the groups Indicator minor, I. conirostris, and 
/. exilis, and resurrects Heuglin's Melignothes pachyrhynchus, 
giving good reasons for this decision (p. 874). Claude Grant, 
Ibis, 1915, p. 436, discusses M. pachyrhynchus, but does 
not come to any decision, although he points out the small 
size of the lost type. Reichenow, Vog. Afr. ii. 1902-03, 
p. 112, places this name as a doubtful synonym of his 
/. pygmseus, thus reversing the rule of priority by placing 
a 1892 name before a 1864 one. 

Heuglin, Orn. N.O. Afr. ii. 1871, p. 772, places it as a query 
synonym oil. minor. Finsch and Hartlaub in Van der Decken, 
Reisen, iv. 1870, p. 516, places it as a synonym of /. minor, 
despite the disparity in size as shown in the table on 
p. 517. It would appear that no notice has been taken of 

We have carefully examined this question, and find that 
Oberholser's decision is correct, inasmuch as Heuglin's name 
is not a synonym of/, m. minor. Heuglin's type was a male 
and had a bill-measurement of 10 mm. and a wing-measurement 
of 79 mm. Indicator minor has a bill-measurement * of 
10-12 mm. (the largest measurement being males), and a wing- 
measurement of, males 80-97, females 81-88 mm. ; and 
Indicator exilis has a bill-measurement of 8-5-10-5 (the largest 
measurement being males) and a wing-measurement of, 
males 72-79, females 65-72 mm. 

Heuglin's description would agree with /. minor, but the 
measurements can only agree with I. exilis, therefore Melig- 
nothes pachyrhynchus Heuglin becomes a synonym of Indicator 
exilis exilis Cassin. 

One specimen in the British Museum, adult male, Major 

1938.] 143 [Vol. lviii. 

Cave collection, Wau, Bahr-el-Ghazal, has a bill of 9 and a wing 
of 75 mm., and agrees perfectly with an adult female from 
Landana, in the British Museum collection, collected by 
Petit on March 8, 1876. An adult female, Mabira Forest, 
Uganda, and an immature male, Lugalambo, Ankole, Uganda, 
both kindly loaned to us by Dr. van Someren (wings 72 and 
74 mm.), agree perfectly with the series of /. e. exilis in the 
British Museum collection. 

(B) Dr. Stresemann, of the Berlin Museum, has very kindly 
loaned to us the type of Indicator pygmseus Reichw. This is 
an adult female, with a wing of 79-5 mm., and in colour and 
markings agrees perfectly with the series of/, e. exilis in the 
British Museum collection. Therefore Indicator pygmseus 
Reichw. becomes a synonym of Indicator exilis exilis Cass. 

(C) and (E) Through the kindness of Dr. Friedmann, of 
the United States National Museum, we have received photo- 
graphs of the type of Indicator meliphilus Oberholser, which 
clearly shows a larger- billed bird than the type of I. narokensis 
and agrees with the four specimens we have before us, i. e., 
Moreau's adult male from Moa, near Amani (no. 1175), Brit. 
Mus. Reg. no. 1932.10.29.14, recorded in 'Ibis,' 1932, p. 665 ; 
van Someren's adult female from Soronko River, Elgon, and 
the adult male and female collected by Vincent in Nyasaland, 
Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1933.3.1.19 and 410, the male being 
the type of Indicator appelator, which name becomes a synonym 
of Indicator meliphilus Ober. 

(D) We have been privileged to examine two specimens 
loaned to us by Dr. van Someren, an adult male and female 
from Mt. Maroto, eastern Uganda, dated Nov. 30, 1917, 
and these together with the type and Dr. Granvik's specimen 
clearly show that /. narokensis is a distinct species having 
a smaller bill and a smaller wing-measurement than /. meli- 
philus. Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. i. 1924, p. 290, and Birds 
of Kenya Colony and Uganda, ii. 1938, p. 737, places /. naro- 
kensis Jackson (type in British Museum) as a synonym of 
I. meliphilus (Ober.) ; as does Granvik, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 

Vol. lviii.] 144 [1938. 

xxv. 1934, p. 51, who compared his specimen with the type 
of /. narokensis, but not with the type of /. meliphilus. This 
specimen from Kacheleba has been very kindly loaned to us 
by the Director of the Malmo Museum, Sweden. It agrees 
with the type and van Someren's specimens, and is therefore 
/. narokensis. 

It is a very remarkable fact that there are two birds so 
very similar in coloration, but differing in size of wing and 
bill ; and, although they both occur in the same general 
area in Kenya Colony, it may be found that they inhabit 
different types of country, as Granvik records I. narokensis 
in tall acacias in dry open country, and Moreau records 
I. e. meliphilus in the vestiges of coastal forest. 

The species and races that we are able to recognize in 
Eastern Africa in the four groups of these Green Honey- 
Guides are : — 

Indicator minor minor Stephens. 

Indicator minor Stephens, in Shaw's Gen. Zool. ix. 1815, 
p. 140 : Zwartkop River, Uitenhage Division, Cape Province, 
South Africa ; of which Indicator minor teitensis Neumann, 
J. f. 0. 1900, p. 195 : Taita, south-eastern Kenya Colony, 
and Indicator exilis erlangeri Zedlitz, Orn. Monatsb. 1913, 
p. 59 : Afgoi, Southern Italian Somaliland, are synonyms. 

Wing 80-97 mm. 

Distribution. — Uganda, Kenya Colony, and southern Italian 
Somaliland to Angola, Cape Province, and Natal. 

Indicator minor diadematus Ruppell. 

Indicator diadematus Ruppell, N. Wirbelth. Vog. 1837, p. 61 : 
Northern Abyssinia. 

Wing 83-96 mm. 

Distribution. — Eritrea, Abyssinia, and British Somaliland to 
the Sudan. 

Indicator conirostris conirostris (Cassin). 

Melignothes conirostris Cassin, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1856, 
p. 156, pi. 2 : Moonda River, Gabon. 

1938.] 145 [Vol. lviii. 

Wing 85-97 mm. 

Distribution. — Gabon and Cameroon to north-western Kenya 

Indicator exilis exilis (Cassin). 

Melignothes exilis Cassin, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1856, p. 157 : 
Moonda River, Gabon, of which Melignothes pachyrhynchus 
Heug. and Indicator pygmseus Oberholser are synonyms. 

Wing 64-79-5 mm. 

Distribution. — Southern Nigeria to south-western Sudan, 
Uganda (Lugalambo, Ankole ; and Mabira Forest), and 
north-western Tanganyika Territory (Bukoba). 

Indicator exilis meliphilus (Ober.). 

Melignothes exilis meliphilus Oberholser, Proc. U.S. Nat. 
Mus. xxviii. 1905, p. 869 : Taveta, south-western Kenya 
Colony, of which Indicator appelator Vincent, Bull. B. O. C. 
liii. 1933, p. 130 : Zobue, Portuguese East Africa-Nyasaland 
Boundary, is a synonym. 

Wing 73-80 mm. Four specimens examined. 

Distribution. — Southern Nyasaland, through Portuguese 
East Africa to north-eastern Tanganyika Territory (Moa, 
near Amani), and Elgon (Soronko River). 

A comparison of skins clearly shows that Oberholser is 
correct in placing this as a race of I. exilis. 

Indicator narokensis Jackson. 

Indicator narokensis Jackson, Bull. B. O. C. xix. 1906, p. 20 : 
Doinyo Narok, south-eastern Kenya Colony. 

Wing 65-70 mm. Four specimens examined. 

Distribution. — Eastern Uganda (Mt. Maroto) and north- 
western Kenya Colony (Kacheleba) to southern Kenya 
Colony (Mt. Doinyo Narok). 

(5) On the Status of Prodotiscus insignis reichenowi Madarasz, 
Ann. Mus. Nat. Hung. ii. 1904, p. 206 : Moshi, north- 
eastern Tanganyika Territory. 

Bannerman, 'Ibis,' 1923, p. 724, states that doubt has been 
cast on this race ; Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. i. 1924, p. 292. 

Vol. lviii.] 146 [1938. 

and Sclater and Moreau, 'Ibis,' 1932, p. 666, also cast doubt 
on the validity of this race. 

The British Museum collection contains eight specimens 
from western und south-western Abyssinia, Nairobi, Kenya 
Colony, and Essimingor (50 miles west of Mt. Meru), Oldeani 
and Amani, north-eastern Tanganyika Territory. All these 
agree perfectly one with the other, the wing-measurements 
being 67-73 mm. ; the latter measurement is the bird from 
western Abyssinia and agrees with that given for the type of 
P. i. reichenowi. 

The slight individual variation in this series is quite sufficient 
to preclude the recognition of P. i. reichenowi, which thus 
becomes a synonym of P. i. ellenbecki Erlanger, O. M. ix. 1901, 
p. 182 : Daroli (upper Webi Shebeli), Arussi, south-eastern 

(6) On the Status of Prodotiscus regulus peasei 0. Grant, Bull. 

B. 0. C. xi. 1901, p. 67 : Unji, Central Abyssinia. 

Claude Grant, ' Ibis,' 1915, p. 437, casts considerable doubt 
on the validity of this race ; but suggests that it may stand 
on size. Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. i. 1924, p. 291, and Fried- 
mann, Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. Mus. 1930, p. 472, are both doubtful 
as to whether it should be recognized. 

As has been shown, the tail- character does not hold, and 
we now find that further material of the typical bird in the 
British Museum gives wing-measurement as 71-83 mm., 
the type of P. r. peasei having a wing of 82 mm. It is therefore 
clear that there is now no character by which P. r. peasei 
O. Grant can be separated from P. r. regulus Sundevall, of 
which it becomes a synonym. 

(7) On the Type-locality and Type of Dendromus scriptori- 

cauda Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb. 1896, p. 131. 

Claude Grant, 'Ibis,' 1915, p. 452, was of opinion that 
Reichenow founded this name on Hargitt's description in 
Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus. xviii. 1890, p. 102, and that therefore 
the type was the specimen in the British Museum collected 
by Kirk and listed by Hargitt. 

1938.] 147 [Vol. lviii. 

Sclater, Bull. B. O. C. xlvi. 1925, p. 14, states that he 
submitted a pair of birds, collected by Belcher in Nyasaland 
and now in the British Museum collection, to Dr. Stresemann, 
who pronounced that they agreed with Reichenow's species. 
Sclater then gives Bumi, Tanganyika Territory, as the type- 

As these statements are diametrically opposed and the 
matter seemed far from clear, we wrote to Dr. Stresemann, 
who, under date April 4, 1938, very kindly replied : — " Dendro- 
mus scriptoricauda Rchw., 1896, has not been based on Hargitt's 
bird, but on a series of specimens already represented in the 
Berlin Museum in 1896. Reichenow, after finding out the 
characters of D. scriptoricauda with the help of the Berlin 
material, only stated that Hargitt had listed the East African 
bird under a wrong name, when he called it Campethera 
cailliautii. Reichenow himself has marked as type a female 
collected by R. Bohm, August 18, 1880, near Bumi." 

In the original description Reichenow makes no mention 
of a series nor of a type ; but he does give a new description 
and as he gives wing 105-115 mm. it does indicate that he 
had more than one specimen. The question really turns on 
whether Reichenow named Hargitt's description and specimen, 
or whether he described his new bird on a series he had before 
him in Berlin. 

Although Reichenow's article is ambiguous and he failed 
to state that he had a series or had selected the type, we can 
agree with Stresemann that Reichenow was naming the 
East African species and not Hargitt's description in the Cat. 
Bds. Brit. Mus. Therefore the type of Dendromus scriptori- 
cauda Rchw. is not in London, but in Berlin ; and the type- 
locality is Bumi, Morogoro District, eastern Tanganyika 

As regards Kirk's specimen listed by Hargitt, there is no 
doubt whatever that it was not collected at Lamu, Kenya 
Colony, and must have been collected by Kirk on the Lower 
Zambesi, or in Nyasaland. No doubt Shelley was the cause 
of this error when relabelling the birds and destroying the 
original labels. 

Vol. lviii.] 148 [1938. 

Mr. Dunajewski, of the Warsaw Zool. Museum, sent 
the following description of a new race of Flycatcher : — 

Muscicapa striata berliozi, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Above light brownish ashy-grey, lighter and 
greyer than the typical form, greyer than M. s. balearia Jord. 
and M. s. sarudnyi Snig., lighter than M . s. neumanni Poche. 
Lower parts white, the streaks on the breast greyish but 
distinct, more distinct and heavier than in M . s. balearica Jord. 
and M. s. sarudnyi Snig. Flanks brownish. Secondaries, 
tertiaries, and greater wing- coverts edged with whitish, 
primaries and tail-feathers darker than in M. s. sarudnyi Snig. 
Wing longer than in M. s. balearica Jord., which is the closest 
and most similar form. 

Distribution. — French N. Africa. 

Type.— Male, 12. v. 1923, El Kantara, Algeria, in Mus. 
d'Hist. Nat. in Paris. 

Measurements. — Wing, three males, 87-5-91, five females, 
86-5-89 ; bill from nostrils 8-5-9-5 mm. 

Remarks. — Through the courtesy of Mr. J. Berlioz, I was 
able to study the specimens of Muscicapa striata Pall, in the 
Museum d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, and I noticed that 
the specimens of North Africa represent a still unnamed 
peculiar form. 


[Names of new species and subspecies are inidcated by clarendon type 

under the generic entry only ; vernacular, or common, 

names are shown in ordinary type.] 

aalge albionis, Uria, 54. 

hyperborea, Uria, 54. 

spiloptera, Uria, 54. 

— — , Uria aalge, 54. 
abessynicus, Micropus affmis, 21. 
achimodzi, Micropus, 51. 
acuminata, Aimophila acuminata, 

128, 129. 

guerrerensis, Aimophila, 128. 

nayaritensis, Aimophila, 128. 

acuta, Anas, 109. 

adamsi, Montifringilla nivalis, 10. 

flSgithalus caudatus rosaceus, nom. 

nov., 44. 
£2gypius monachus danieli, subsp. 

nov., 94. 

monachus, 94. 

sequatorialis, Apus, 49. 

, Micropus sequatorialis, 49, 

affinis abessynicus, Micropus, 21. 
— ■ — , Pogoniulus pusillus, 140, 

Afropavo congensis, 28. 
Aimophila acuminata acuminata, 

128, 129. 
guerrerensis,subsp. nov., 

nayaritensis, subsp. 

nov., 128. 
Aix, 63. 

Aixopsis, 59, 62. 
alaudinus, Passerculus sandwich- 

ensis, 129. 
albicauda, Lybius leucocephalus, 

65, 66. 
albifrons peruviana, Pithys, 90. 
—,Pthys, 90, 91. 
albigularis, Lybius zombse, 105. 

vol. Lvni. 

albionis, Uria aalge, 54. 
albolimbata, Oreonympha nobilis, 

4A, 45. 
Alectoris grseca philbyi, 30. 
aliena, Rhodopechys sanguinea, 27. 
alticola, Urocissaerythrorhyncha, 72. 
altifrons, Charadrius apricarius, 

Amazonetta, 59, 62, 63. 
— — brasiliensis, 59, 60, 61, 63. 
— ■ — ■ (Calonetta) leucophrys, 63. 

vittata, sp. nov., 60, 61, 63. 

amphitrite, Nesofregetta, 100. 

Anas acuta, 109. 

— ■ — ■ cyanoptera, 86, 88. 

leucophrys, 62. 

platyrhynchos, 16, 110. 

Anomalospiza imberbis imberbis, 


■ macmillani, 112. 

nyasse, subsp. nov., 112. 

Anous, 70. 

Anthus cervinus, 122. 

Apalis murina fuscigularis, subsp. 

nov., 48. 

murina, 48. 

apatelius, Caprimulgus, 18, 19, 20. 

, clarus, 18. 

Aphanapteryx, 18. 

— — ■ bonasia, 18. 

appelator, Indicator, 142, 143, 145. 

apricarius altifrons, Charadrius, 

Apteryx australis, 17. 
Apus sequatorialis, 49. 

apus kollibayi, 49, 50. 

marwitzi, 49, 50. 

pekinensis, 49. 

kittenbergeri, 49, 50. 


Vol. lviii.] 



Apus reichenowi, 49, 51. 

apus barbatus, Micropus, 49, 50. 

kollibayi, Apus, 49, 50. 

lawsonse, Micropus, 50. 

marwitzi, Apus, 49, 50. 

, Micropus apus, 49, 50. 

pekinensis, Apus, 49. 

, Micropus, 50. 

Ara ararauna, 16. 

— — chloroptera, 16. 

ararauna, Ara, 16. 

Arenaria inter pres inter pres, 122. 

argoondah meinertzhageni, Perdi- 

cula, 9. 
Artisornis, 139. 

winifredae, sp. nov., 139. 

Astur tachiro sparsimfasciatus, 100. 

— tachiro, 100. 

Atlapetes pileatus canescens, subsp. 

nov., 126. 

pileatus dilutus, 126. 

pileatus, 126. 

atricapilla, Densirostra, 13. 

, Heteronetta, 63. 

atricapillus borealis, Parus, 122. 
atriaeps, Spinus, 134, 135. 
atrocaudata, Terpsiphone, 14. 
atronitens, Volatinia jacarina, 130. 
Auk, 81. 

, Great, 13. 

australis, Apteryx, 17. 

— — , J unco pheeonotus, 133. 

Babax lanceolatus lumsdeni, subsp. 

nov., 76, 77. 

waddelli, 76, 77. 

Babbler, 76. 

bahamensis, Maridus, 13. 

bailyi, Polyplectron bicalcaratum, 

balearica, Muscicapa striata, 148. 
barbata greenwayi, Erythropygia, 

— — quadrivirgata, Erythropygia, 


rovumse, Erythropygia, 64. 

Barbatula bilineatus jacksoni, 82. 

kandti, 82. 

— — ■ leucolaima urungensis, 82, 83. 

pusillus lollesheid, 140, 141. 

barbatus, Cypselus, 49, 50. 

, Micropus apus, 49, 50. 

bedfordi, Terpsiphone, 14. 
beicki, Erythrina synoica, 95, 96. 
belcheri, Buccanodon, 84. 
bensoni, Sheppardia, 138. 
berliozi, Muscicapa striata, 148. 
bewickii, Tringa, 8, 

biarcuatum chiapensis, Melozone, 

, Melozone biarcuatum, 126, 

bicalcaratum bailyi, Polyplectron, 


, Polyplectron, 93. 

bilineatus conciliator, Pogoniulus, 


fischeri, Pogoniulus, 116. 

— ■ — jacksoni, Barbatula, 82. 

•, Pogoniulus, 82, 116. 

, Pogoniulus, 82. 

bilineatus, 116. 

Bird of Paradise, Greater, 70. 

Bittern, Cape, 77. 

blanchardi, Parus rufonuchalis, 95. 

Bluethroat, 122. 

Bomby cilia garrulus, 122. 

bonasia, Aphanapteryx, 18. 

borealis, Parus atricapillus, 122. 

, Phylloscopus borealis, 122. 

borneensis, Terpsiphone paradisi, 

boscaweni, (Enanthe lugubris, 32. 
Botaurus stellaris capensis, 77. 
Bower-Bird, Satin, 123, 124. 
brasiliensis, Amazonetta, 59, 60, 

61, 63. 
brevicauda, Phalacrocorax melano- 

leucus, 46. 
brunnescens, Passer cuius sandwich- 

ensis, 129. 

■* Pipilo torquatus, 131. 

Buarremon virenticeps eolimae, 

subsp. nov., 125. 

virenticeps, 125. 

Buccanodon belcheri, 84. 

leucotis kenyse, 140. 

■ — ■ kilimense, 140. 

— — ■ olivaceum, 84. 
— — woodwardi, 84. 
Bucco torquatus, 105. 
Bulbul, Yellow-vented, 113. 
Bullfinch, 13. 
bulweri, Procellaria, 12. 
Bulweria, 12. 
Bunting, Lapland, 122. 

, Snow, 122. 

Bustard, Macqueen's, 31. 

, Saville's 71. 

Buteo lagopus lagopus, 122. 
Buzzard, Rough-legged, 122. 

cserulea deltarhyncha, Guiraca, 133. 

eurhyncha, Guiraca, 133. 

, Guiraca, 134. 

lazula, Guiraca, 133. 



[Vol. lviii. 

cserulea, Urocissa, 72. 

, — ■ — erythrorhyncha, 71, 72. 

csesia okuensis, Goracina, 76. 

preussi, Goracina, 76. 

cailliantii, Campethera, 147. 

Galamozcetor, 102. 

leptorhyncha leptorhyncha, 

102, 103. 

— macrorhyncha, 102, 103. 

Galcarius lapponicus lapponicus, 

Galidris maritima maritima, 122. 

temminckii, 122. 

Callseops, 14, 15. 
Calonetta, 62, 63. 
(Galonetta) leucophrys, Amazonetta, 

Campethera cailliantii, 147. 
canadensis, Sitta canadensis, 6. 

• villosa, Sitta, 6. 

— ■ — whiteheadi, Sitta, 4, 6, 26. 
canescens, Atlapetes pileatus, 126. 
cantillans, Sylvia cantillans, 7. 
capensis, Botaurus stellaris, 77. 
Gaprimulgus, 19. 

apatelius, 18, 19, 20. 

dams, 18, 19, 20. 

■ — ■ apatelius, 18. 

europseus, 32. 

— europseus, 33, 34. 

meridionalis, 33, 34. 

— ■ sarudnyi, 32, 33. 
unwini, 21, 34. 

fervidus fervidus, 35 . 
■/o*m, 18, 19. 

• guttifer, 34. 

■ nauta, 20, 21. 
nigriscapularis, 34. 

• pectoralis, 34. 
■frenatus, 34. 

poliocephalus, 34. 

rufigena, 34. 

— ■ — ruwenzorii, 34. 

Garduelis flammea flammea, 1 22. 

■ flavirostris flavirostris, 123. 

castanea, Pithy s, 90, 91. 

castro cryptoleucura, Gymochorea, 

— ■ — kumagai, Gymochorea, 63. 
caudatus, Parus, 44. 

• rosaceus, Mgithalus, 44. 

cervinus, Anthus, 122. 
Oeyx lepida meeki, 47, 48. 

— ■ pallidus, 47. 

Ghsetura stictilsema marwitzi, 51. 
Chalcites lucidus lucidus, 48. 
Chalcostigma, 46. 
Gharadrius apricarius altifrons, 


Gharadrius morinellus, 122. 
Charmosyna intensior, 47. 

• placentis pallidior, 47. 

— - — ■ placentis, 47. 

subplacens, 47. 

Ghenonetta jubata, 63. 

chiapensis, Melozone biarcuatum, 


, Pipilo maculatus, 130. 

chincou, Vultur, 94, 95. 
Ghlamydera, 124. 
chloroptera, Ara, 16. 
chrysater giraudii, Icterus, 136. 

, Icterus chrysater, 136, 137. 

— — mayensis, Icterus, 136. 
chubbi, Mandingoa nitidula, 103, 


, Pytelia, 103. 

Giconia ciconia ciconia, 38. 
cinctus, Parus, 122. 
cinnamomea talautensis, Terpsi- 

phone, 16. 
, Terpsiphone cinnamomea, 15, 

— ■ — ■ unirufa, Terpsiphone, 15, 16. 
clarus apatelius, Gaprimulgus, 18. 
— ■ — ■, Gaprimulgus, 18, 19, 20. 
— — •, Scotornis climacurus, 20. 
clelandi, Geopelia placida, 115. 

— ■ — ■, striata, 115. 

climacwus clarus, Scotornis, 20. 

nigricans, Scotornis, 19. 

sclateri, Scotornis, 19, 20. 

, Scotornis, 18. 

Coalhood, 13. 

Cockatoo, Bare-eyed, 90. 

Goereba, 70. 

colimse, Buarremon virenticeps, 125. 

, J unco phseonotus, 132. 

Golius leucocephalus leucocephalus, 


turneri, 66. 

striatus minor, 65. 

rhodesise, subsp. nov., 


conciliator, Pogoniulus bilineatus, 

concinna didimus, Glossopsitta, 114. 

, Glossopsitta concinna, 114. 

concinnus, Psittacus, 114. 
congensis, Afropavo, 28. 
congicus, Lybius torquatus, 104. 

, Melanobucco torquatus, 105. 

conirostris, Indicator, 142. 

, Indicator conirostris, 144. 

, Melignothes, 144. 

connectens, Goracina novsehol- 

landiae, 73. 
cookii, Procellaria, 12. 


Vol. lviii.1 



Cookilaria, 12. 

Coracina caesia okuensis, subsp. 
nov., 76. 

preussi, 76. 

melanops tasmanica, 72. 

nov&hollandise, 72. 

connectens, 73. 

didimus, 73, 74. 

kuehni, 73, 74, 75. 

melanops, 73. 

novsehollandise, 72, 73. 

subpallida, 73, 74. 

westralensis, 73. 

Coriphilus peruvianas, 55, 56. 

Corvus melanops, 73. 

Cosmetornis vexillarius, 35. 

Courser, 31. 

Crane, European, 42. 

Crossbill, Parrot, 122. 

cryptoleucura, Cymochorea castro, 

Cuckoo, Klaas's, 30. 
Cuckoo -Shrike, 72. 

, Grey, 76. 

cucullatus, Raphus, 16. 
Curlew, Stone, 31. 
cyanescens, Terpsiphone, 15. 

, Neoxeocephus, 14. 

cyanoptera, Anas, 86, 88. 

, Querquedula, 63. 

Cymochorea castro cryptoleucura, 

kumagai, subsp. nov., 

Cymodroma, 11, 12. 

■ deceptis, 98, 99. 

leucothysanus, 97, 98, 99. 

■ melanogaster, 98, 99. 

tropica, 98, 99. 

tubulata, 99. 

Cypselus barbatus, 49, 50. 
■ — — myoptilus, 49, 5 1 . 

• niansse, 49, 50. 
shelleyi, 50. 

danieli, yEgypius monachus, 94. 
deceptis, Cymodroma, 98, 99. 
deltarhyncha, Guiraca cserulea, 133. 
Demigretta sacra, 54. 
Dendromus scriptoricauda, 146, 147. 
Densirostra, 13. 

atricapilla, 13. 

enucleata, 13. 

diadematus, Indicator minor, 144. 
dickeyse, Icterus graduacauda, 137. 
didimus, Coracina novsehollandise, 

73, 74. 
, Glossopsitta concinna, 114. 

didymus, Lybius melanopterus, 83, 

diluta, Stachyris poliocephala, 82. 
— — , Thringorhina guttata, 82. 
— ■ — , Volatinia jacarina, 130. 
dilutus, Atlapetes pileatus, 126. 
discors, Querquedula, 63. 
Diver, Black-throated, 81. 
Dodo, 16, 17, 29. 
Dotterel, 122. 
Duck, 16. 
— — ■, Carolina, 63. 

, Eider, 81. 

— — , Mandarin, 63. 

Dupetor flavicollis woodfordi, 46. 

Egret, Little, 81. 

Eider, Steller's, 123. 

elegans, Sterna, 13. 

ellenbecki, Prodotiscus insignis, 146. 

enucleata, Densirostra, 13. 

enucleator, Pinicola enucleator, 

erlangeri, Indicator exilis, 141, 144. 

Erythrina synoica beicki, 95, 96. 

— salimalii, subsp. nov., 


stoliczse, 95, 96. 

— ■ ■ synoica, 96. 

erythrocephalus gallarum, Trachy- 
phonus, 116, 117. 

— ■ — ■ jacksoni, Trachyphonus, 116, 

— — shelleyi, Trachyphonus, 84, 

, Trachyphonus erythrocepha- 
lus, 116, 117. 

— ■ — versicolor, Trachyphonus, 116, 

erythropus, Scolopax, 8. 

— — , Tringa, 8, 122. 

Erythropygia barbata greenwayi, 
subsp. nov., 64. 

— — barbata quadrivirgata, 64. 

— ■ — ■ rovumse, 64. 

erythrorhyncha alticola, Urocissa, 

— ■ — cserulea, Urocissa, 71, 72. 

Estrilda nitidula, 103. 

eupterus, Pogoniulus pusillus, 138, 

eurhyncha, Guiraca cserulea, 133. 

europseus, Caprimulgus, 32. 

, europseus, 33, 34. 

meridionalis, Caprimulgus, 

33, 34. 

— — sarudnyi, Caprimulgus, 32, 



[Vol. lviii. 

europseus unwini, Caprimulgus, 21, 

exilis erlangeri, Indicator, 141, 

, Indicator, 119, 141, 142, 143, 

, exilis, 141, 142, 143, 


, Melignothes, 145. 

meliphilus, Indicator, 144, 

, Melignothes, 145. 

fenestra, Martula, 13. 

fervidus, Caprimulgus fervidus, 35. 

Fieldfare, 122, 148. 

Finch, Snow-, 10. 

fischeri, Pogoniulus bilineatus, 116. 

, Turacus jischeri, 111. 

■ zanzibaricus, Turacus, 111. 

flammea, Carduelis flammea, 122. 
flavicollis woodfordi, Dupetor, 46. 
flavirostris, Carduelis flavirostris, 

Flycatcher, 123, 148. 

, Paradise, 30. 

, Philippine Paradise, 13, 14. 

, Pied, 13. 

formosum, Nettion, 60. 
forreri, Spinus notatus, 135, 136. 
fossii, Caprimulgus, 18, 19. 
Fregata, 11, 12. 
fregata, Procellaria, 12. 

, (Sula), 12. 

F regatta, 12. 
Fregetta, 11, 12, 98. 

gr altar ia, 97, 98. 

leucogaster, 11, 12, 97, 98, 


leucogastra, 97. 

melanogaster, 11, 97, 98. 

melanogastra, 97. 

— — oceanica, 97. 

tropica, 100. 

fregetta, Thalassidroma, 12. 
Fregettornis, 98. 

grallaria, 97, 98, 99. 

■ — ■ — leucogaster, 99. 
Fregodroma leucothysanus, 11, 12. 
frenatus, Caprimulgus pectoralis, 

Frigate Bird, 12. 
Fulmar, 54, 81. 
Fulmarus glacialis, 54. 
fuscigularis, Apalis murina, 48. 
fuscus, Pipilo fuscus, 132. 
— ■ — tenebrosus, Pipilo, 132. 

gallarum, Trachyphonus erythro- 
cephalus, 116, 117. 

Gannet, 42, 81. 

garrulus, Bombycilla, 122. 

Gennseus horsfieldi, 92. 

leucomelanos, 92, 93. 

lineatus, 93. 

melanotus, 92. 

moffitti, sp. nov., 91, 93. 

Geopelia placida, 115. 

clelandi, 115. 

— — ■ hedleyi, 115. 

— - — — ■ — ■ melvillensis, 115. 

— — striata, 115. 

■ — ■ — • clelandi, 115. 

— — ■ placida, 115. 

— — tranquilla, 115. 

tranquilla, 115. 

germaini, Polyplectron, 93. 

gertrudis, Pseudohirundo griseo- 
pyga, 9. 

giganteus, Macronectes, 54. 

giraudii, Icterus chrysater, 136. 

glacialis, Fulmarus, 54. 

glareola, Tringa, 122. 

•a concinna concinna, 


didimus, 114. 

Godwit, Bar-tailed, 122. 

Goose, American Snow, 42. 

— — , Australian Maned, 63. 

— — ■, Canada. 42. 

graduacauda dickeyse, Icterus, 137. 

— — , Icterus graduacauda, 137. 

— ■ — nayaritensis, Icterus, 137, 138. 

grseca philbyi, Alectoris, 30. 

grallaria, Fregetta, 97, 98. 

— , Fregettornis, 97, 98, 99. 

— ■ — -, Procellaria, 11, 96. 

grandis richardsoni, Saltator, 124, 

— - — ■ vigor sii, Saltator, 124, 125. 

Greenshank, 122. 

greenivayi, Erythropygia barbata, 

griscomi, Spinus notatus, 135. 

grisea, Scolopax; 13. 

griseopyga gertrudis, Pseudohi- 
rundo, 9. 

— ■ — - liberise, Pseudohirundo, 8. 

— - — - melbina, Pseudohirundo, 9. 

, Pseudohirundo griseopyga, 8. 

Grosbeak, Pine, 122. 

guerrerensis, Aimophila acuminata, 

, Pipilo torquatus, 131. 

guifsobalito, Lybius, 67. 

— — ■ ugandse, Lybius, 83. 

Guillemot, Common, 54. 

Vol. lviii.] 

J 54 


Cm idea cserulea, 134. 

deltarhyncha, subsp. 

nov., 133. 

eurhyncha, 133. 

lazula, 133. 

Gull, 81. 

, Black-headed, 29. 

gunningi, Sheppardia, 138. 
guttata diluta, Thringorhina, 82. 

tonkinensis, Stachyris, 82. 

guttifer, Caprimulgus, 34. 

Hammerhead, 30. 
hedleyi, Geopelia placida, 115. 
Heliangelus, 46. 
Heron, Reef, 54. 
Heteronetta atricapilla, 63. 
Hirundo urbica, 13. 
Hoopoe, 81. 
horsfieldi, Gennseus, 92. 
Humming-Bird, 44. 
hyperborea, Uria aalge, 54. 

ichla, Thalasseus, 13. 

Icterus chrysater chrysater, 136, 


giraudii, 136. 

mayensis, subsp. nov., 

graduacauda dickeyse, subsp. 

nov., 137. 

graduacauda, 137. 

— nayaritensis, subsp. 

nov., 135, 137, 138. 
Icterus pustulatus, 138. 
ignea, Terpsiphone, 14. 
imberbis, Anomalospiza imberbis, 

macmillani, Anomalospiza, 


nyas&e, Anomalospiza, 112. 

Indicator appelator, 142, 143, 145. 

conirostris, 142. 

conirostris, 144. 

diadematus, 144. 

— — ■ erlangeri, 141. 

exilis, 119, 141-145. 

— erlangeri, 141, 144. 

exilis, 141, 142, 143, 


meliphilus, 144, 145. 

meliphilus, 143, 144. 
mmor, 141, 142, 143, 144. 

diadematus, 144. 

minor, 118, 119, 142, 


teitensis, 118, 119, 142. 

narokensis, 142-145. 

Indicator pygmseus, 141 142, 143, 


variegatus jubaensis, 118. 

Inexpectatus, Podargus ocellatus, 

infaustus, Perisoreus, 122. 
insignis ellenbecki, Prodotiscus, 

reichenowi, Prodotiscus, 145, 

intensior, Charmosyna, 47. 
interpres, Arenaria interpres, 122. 
irroratus, Lybius torquatus, 105, 

, Pogonorhynchus, 105. 

jacarina atronitens, Volatinia, 130. 

diluta, Volatinia, 130. 

jacksoni, Barbatula bilineatus, 82. 
, Pogoniulus bilineatus, 82, 

, Trachyphonus erythroceplia- 

lus, 116, 117. 
Jay, Siberian, 122. 
jubaensis, Indicator variegatus, 118. 
jubata, Chenoneita, 63. 
Junco phseonotus australis, subsp. 

nov., 133. 
colimse, subsp. nov., 

— phseonotus, 132, 133. 

kandti, Barbatula, 82. 

kenyse, Buccanodon leucotis, 140. 

, Smilorhis leucotis, 140. 

kilimense, Buccanodon leucotis, 140. 
kingi, Trachyphonus margaritatus, 

kittenbergeri, Apus, 49, 50. 
Kiwi, 17. 
Knot, 81. 

kollibayi, Apus apus, 49, 50. 
kruperi, iSitta, 6. 
kuehni, Coracina novsehollandise, 

73, 74, 75. 
kumagai, Cymochorea castro, 63. 

lagopus, Buteo lagopus, 122. 
lanceolatus lumsdeni, Babax, 76, 77. 

waddelli, Babax, 76, 77. 

lapponica, Limosa lapponica, 122. 
lapponicus, Calcarius lapponicus, 

lawsonse, Micropus apus, 50. 
lazula, Guiraca cseruiea, 133. 
lepida meeki, Ceyx, 47, 48. 
— — i pallidus, Ceyx, 47. 



[Vol. Iviii. 

leptorhyncha, Calamcecetor, 102. 

■ , leptorhyncha, 102, 103. 

macrorhyncha, Calamcecetor, 

102, 103. 
leucocephalus albicauda, Lybius, 

65, 66. 

, Colius leucocephalus, 66. 

lynesi, Lybius, 65, 66. 

turneri, Colius, 66. 

leucogaster, Fregetta, 11, 12, 97, 

98, 99. 

, Fregettornis, 99. 

, Sula, 70. 

•, Thalassidroma, 97. 

leucogastra, Fregetta, 97. 
leucogenys, Lybius undatus, 67. 
leucolaima nyansse, Pogoniulus, 82, 

. urungensis, Barbatula, 82, 

leucomelanos, Gennseus, 92, 93. 
leucomystax, Viridibucco, 77, 78. 
leucophrys, Amazonetta {Calonetta), 


, Anas, 62. 

leucothysanus, Cymodroma, 97, 98, 


, Fregodroma, 11, 12. 

leucotis keny&e, Buccanodon, 140. 

, Smilorhis, 140. 

kilimense, Buccanodon, 140. 

liberise, Pseudohirundo griseopyga, 

Limosa lapponica lapponica, 122. 
lineatus, Gennseus, 93. 
lobatus, Phalaropus, 122. 
lollesheid, Barbatula pusillus, 140, 

longicaudus, Stercorarius, 122-123. 
Longirostra, 13. 
Lory, Tahiti Blue, 55. 
Lourie, East African Red-crested, 

Loxia pyrrhula, 13. 

pytyopsittacus, 122. 

lucidus, Chalcites lucidus, 48. 
lugens, (Enanthe lugens, 32. 
lugentoides, (Enanthe lugubris, 32. 
lugubris boscaiveni, OEnanthe, 32. 

lugentoides, ffinanthe, 32. 

Iwmsdeni, Babax lanceolatus, 76, 

Luscinia svecica svecica, 122. 
Lybius guifsobalito, 67. 

ugandse, 83. 

leucocephalus albicauda, 65, 

Lybius melanopterus, 83, 84. 

— didymus, 83, 84. 

senex, 66. 

torquatus, 104, 105, 106. 

congicus, 104. 

irroratus, 105, 106. 

pumilio, 105. 

torquatus, 105, 106. 

zombse, 104, 105, 106. 

tsanse, 67. 

undatus leucogenys, 67. 

Salvador ii, 67. 

thiogaster, 67. 

undatus, 67. 

zom&£e, 104, 105, 106. 
albigularis, 105. 





lynesi, Lybius leucocephalus, 65, 

Lyre-Bird, 123. 

Macaw, 16. 

macmillani, Anomalospiza imber- 
bis, 112. 

Macronectes giganteus, 54. 

macropterus, Spinus pinus, 134. 

Macroramfus, 13. 

macrorhyncha, Calamcecetor lepto- 
rhyncha, 102, 103. 

maculatus chiapensis, Pipilo, 130. 

, P^Zo, 131. 

■ — - — repetens, Pipilo, 130. 

Magpie, 30. 

major, Parus major, 123. 

Mallard, 16. 

Mandingoa nitidula chubbi, 103, 

nitidula, 103, 104. 

Mareca penelope, 16. 

margaritatus kingi, Trachyphonus, 

somalicus, Trachyphonus, 107. 

Maridus, 13. 

— — bahamensis, 13. 

maritima, Calidris maritima, 122. 

Martula fenestra, 13. 

marwitzi, Apus apus, 49, 50. 

, Chsetura stictilsema, 51. 

mayensis, Icterus chrysater, 136. 

Mecistura rosea, 44. 

meeki, Ceyx lepida, 47, 48. 

■meinertzhageni, Perdicula argoon- 
dah, 9. 

Melanobucco torquatus congicus, 

— — zombse, 105. 

melanogaster, Cymodroma, 98, 99. 

, Fregetta, 11, 97, 98. 

Vol. lviii.J 



melanogaster , Thalassidroma, 97. 
meUmogastra, F regatta, 97. 
melanoleucus brevicauda, Phalacro- 

corax, 46. 
, Phalacrocorax melanoleucus, 

melanops, Coracina novsehollandise, 


, Corvus, 73. 

tasmanica, Coracina, 12. 

melanopterus didymus, Lybius, 83, 


Lybius, 83, 84. 

melanotus, Gennseus, 92. 
melbina, Pseudohirundo griseo- 

pyga, 9. 
Melignothes conirostris, 144. 

exilis, 145. 

meliphilus, 145. 

• meliphilus, 142. 

• pachyrhynchus, 141, 142, 145. 

meliphilus, Indicator, 143, 144. 

, exilis, 144, 145. 

, Melignothes, 142. 

, exilis, 145. 

Melozone biarcuatum biarcuatum, 

126, 127. 
chiapensis, subsp. nov., 

melvillensis, Geopelia placida, 115. 
meridionalis, Caprimulgus euro- 

pseus, 33, 34. 
Micropus achimodzi, 51. 
— - — ■ sequatorialis sequatorialis, 49, 


affmis abessynicus, 21. 

apus apus, 49, 50. 

barbatus, 49, 50. 

lawson&e, 50. 

pekinensis, 50. 

myoptilus, 51. 

micrus, Pycnonotus tricolor, 113. 
minor, Colius striatus, 65. 

diadematus, Indicator, 144. 

, Indicator, 141, 142, 144. 

, minor, 118, 119, 141, 

142, 144. 
— — -, Riparia paludicola, 3 1 . 
teitensis, Indicator, 118, 119, 

modular is, Pirula, 13. 
moffttti, Gennseus, 91, 93. 
monachus, Mgypius monachus, 94. 

danieli, JEgypius, 94. 

Montifringilla nivalis adamsi, 10. 

theresae, sp. nov., 10. 

morinellus, Charadrius, 122. 
murina, Apalis murina, 48. 
fuscigularis, Apalis, 48. 

Muscicapa striata balearica, 148. 

berliozi, subsp. nov., 


— neumanni, 148. 

sarudnyi, 148. 

Muscicula, 13. 
Muscipeta rufa, 15. 
musicus, Turdus musicus, 122. 
inutata, Terpsiphone, 15. 
myoptilus, Cypselus, 49, 51. 
, Micropus, 51. 

nana theresae, Sylvia, 10. 
narokensis, Indicator, 142-145. 
nauta, Caprimulgus, 20, 21. 
nayaritensis, Aimophila acuminata, 

, Icterus graduacauda, 137, 

nebular ia, Tringa, 122. 
Neoxeocephus, 13, 14, 15. 

cyanescens, 14 

Nesofregetta amphitrite, 100. 
Nesoclopeus woodfordi, 47. 
Nettion formosum, 60. 
— — ■ tor quotum, 62. 
neumanni, Muscicapa striata, 148. 
— — , Terpsiphone tricolor, 15. 
neumayer subcaeruleus, Sitta, 96. 
— ■ — - tephronota, Sitta, 96. 
newtoni, Riparia paludicola, 31. 
nianse, Cypselus, 49, 50. 
nigricans, Scotornis climacurus, 19. 
nigriceps, Terpsiphone, 14. 
nigriscapularis, Caprimulgus, 34. 
nitidula chubbi, Mandingoa, 103, 

— , Estrilda, 103. 
, Mandingoa nitidula, 103, 

nivalis adamsi, Montifringilla, 10. 

, Plectrophenax nivalis, 122. 

nobilis allbolimbata, Oreonympha, 

44, 45. 
, Oreonympha nobilis, 44, 45, 

, Trachyphonus vaillantii, 

nolatus forreri, Spinus, 135, 136. 
— — griscomi, Spinus, 135. 
— — ■, Spinus notatus, 135-136. 
novsehollandide connectens, Cora- 
cina, 73. 
, Coracina novsehollandise, 72, 


didimus, Coracina, 73, 74. 

■ kuehni, Coracina, 73, 74, 75. 

— — ■ melanops, Coracina, 73. 



[Vol. lviii. 

novsehoUandisesubpallida, Coracina, 

73, 74. 

, T urdus, 72. 

westralensis, Coracina, 73. 

Numenius phseopus phseopus, 122. 
Nuthatch, Corsican, 4. 

, Kruper's, 6. 

, Whitehead's, 4, 6. 

nyansse, Pogoniulus leucolaima, 82, 

nyasse, Anomalospiza imberbis, 

nyikse, Othyphantes stuhlmanni, 


oceanica, Fregetta, 97. 

, Procellaria, 96. 

, Thalassidroma, 11, 96, 97. 

Oceanites, 96. 

ocellatus inexpectatus, Podargus, 

(Enanthe lugens lugens 32. 
lugubris boscaweni, subsp. 

nov., 32. 

lugentoides, 32. 

okuensis, Coracina caesia, 76. 
olivaceum, Buccanodon, 84. 
Oreonympha nobilis albolimbata, 

subsp. nov., 44, 45. 

nobilis, 44, 45, 46. 

Oriole, 136. 
Ostrich, 31. 
Othyphantes stuhlmanni 

subsp. nov., 112. 

sharpii, 113. 

stuhlmanni, 112 


pachyrhynchus, Melignothes, 141, 

142, 145. 
palliata, Plagiospiza superciliosa, 

pallidior, Charmosyna placentis, 

pallidus, Ceyx lepida, 47. 
paludicola minor, Riparia, 31. 
— — newtoni, Riparia, 31. 

schoensis, Riparia, 31. 

Paradise Bird, Greater, 70. 
paradisi borneensis, Terpsiphone, 


, Terpsiphone, 14. 

parasiticus, Stercorarius, 54. 
Partridge, 86, 87. 

, Red-legged, 13. 

Parus atricapillus borealis, 122. 

caudatus, 44. 

— — cinctus, 122. 
major major, 123. 

Patus rufonuchalis blanchardi, 

subsp. nov., 95. 

rufonuchalis, 95. 

Passer cuius sandwichensis alaudi- 

nus, 129. 

brunnescens, 129, 130. 

wetmorei, subsp. nov., 

Peacock-Pheasant, Baily's, 93. 
peasei, Prodotiscus regulus, 146. 
pectoralis, Caprimulgus, 34. 

frenatus, Caprimulgus, 34. 

pekinensis, Apus apus, 49. 

, Micropus apus, 50. 

penelope, Mareca, 16. 

Penguin, 81. 

Penguina, 13. 

Penguinus, 13. 

Perdicula argoondah meinertz 

hageni, subsp. nov., 9. 
periophthalmica, Terpsiphone, 14. 
Perisoreus infaustus, 122. 
perplexus, Spinus pinus, 134, 135. 
perspicillata plumbeiceps, Tchitrea, 

100, 101. 

, Tchitrea perspicillata, 100, 

101, 102. 

peruviana, Pithys albifrons, 90. 
peruvianus, Coriphilus, 55, 56. 
Petrel, 81. 

, Frigate, 12. 

, Giant, 54. 

, Shallow -for ktailed, 63. 

, Stormy, 96. 

phseonotus australis, J unco, 133. 

colimse, J unco, 132. 

— — , Junco phseonotus, 132, 133. 
phseopus, Numenius phseopus, 122. 
Phalacrocorax melanoleucus brevi- 

cauda, 46. 

melanoleucus, 46. 

Phalarope, 81 

, Red-necked, 122. 

Phalaropus lobatus, 122. 
Pheasant, 86, 87, 88. 

, Baily's Peacock-, 93. 

, Kaleege, 91, 92. 

philbyi, Alectoris grseca, 30. 
Philomachus pugnax, 7, 8. 
Phylloscopus borealis borealis, 122. 

trochilus, 7. 

Picoides tridactylus, 122. 
picta, Rujipes, 13. 
pilaris, T urdus, 122. 
pileatus, Atlapetes pileatus, 126. 

canescens, Atlapetes, 126. 

— — • dilutis, Atlapetes, 126. 
Pinicola enucleator enucleator, 


Vol. lviii.] 



Pintail, 109, 110, 111. 

pi a us macropterus, Spinas, 132. 

perplexus, Spinus, 134, 135. 

, Spinus pinus, 134, 135. 

I ' ip ilo fuscus fuscus, 1 32 . 
tenebrosus, subsp. nov., 



maculatus, 131. 

chiapensis, subsp. nov., 

■ repetens, 130. 

torquatus, 131. 


nov., 131- 
guerrerensis, subsp. 

nov., 131. 

torquatus, 131 

virescens, 131. 

Pipit, Red-throated, 122. 
Pirula modularis, 13. 
Pithy s albifrons, 90, 91. 

peruviana, 90. 

castanea, sp. nov., 90, 91. 

placentis pallidior, Charmosyna, 47. 
placida clelandi, Geopelia, 115. 

, Geopelia striata, 115. 

hedleyi, Geopelia, 115. 

melvillensis, Geopelia, 115. 

Plagiospiza superciliosa palliata, 

subsp. nov., 127. 

superciliosa, 127. 

platentis, Charmosyna platentis, 47. 
platyrhynchos, Anas, 16, 110. 
Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis, 122. 
Plover, Northern Golden, 122. 
plumbeiceps, Tchitrea pcrspicillata, 

100, 101. 
Pochard, 62. 

Podargus ocellatus inexpectatus, 48. 
Podiceps, 97. 
Pogoniulus bilineatus, 82. 

bilineatus, 116. 

conciliator, 116. 

jlscheri, 116. 

■ jacksoni, 82, 116. 

leucolaima nyansse, 82, 83. 

pusillus affinis, 140, 141. 

— — ■ eupterus, 140, 141. 

lollesheid, 141. 

P.ogonorhynchus irroratus, 105. 
poliocephala diluta, Stachyris, 82. 
poliocephalus, Caprimulgus, 34. 
Poiyplectron bicalcaratum, 93. 

— - — ■ bailyi, 93. 

germaini, 93. 

Polysticta stelleri, 123. 
preussi, Coracina caesia, 76. 
Procellaria bulweri, 12. 
cookii, 12. 

Procellaria fregata, 12. 
— — ■ grallaria, 11, 96. 

oceanica, 96. 

Prodotiscus insignis ellenbecki, 146. 

reichenowi, 145, 146. 

regulus peasei, 146. 

legulus, 146. 

Pseudacanthis yemenensis, 30. 
Pseudohirundo griseopyga gertrudis, 


— griseopyga, 8. 

— — liberiae, subsp. nov., 8. 

melbina, 9. 

Psittacus concinnus, 114. 
pugnax, Philomachus, 7, 8. 
pumilio, Lybius torquatus, 105. 
pusillus affinis, Pogoniulus, 140, 

eupterus, Pogoniulus, 140, 

— lollesheid, Barbatula, 140, 

pustulatus, Icterus, 136. 
Pycnonotus tricolor micrus, 113. 
pygmeeus, Indicator, 141, 142, 143, 

pyrrhula, Loxia, 13. 
Pytelia chubbi, 103. 
pytyopsittacus, Loxia, 122. 

quadrivirgata, Erythropygia bar- 

bata, 64. 
Querquedula cyanoptera, 63. 
— ■ — discors, 63. 

querquedula, 63. 

Quetzal, 70. 

Rail, 47. 

— - — -, Flightless Red Land-, 18. 

Raphus cucullatus. 16. 

Redpoll, Mealy, 122. 

Redhsank, 8. 

— , Spotted, 8, 122. 

Redwing, 122. 

Reeve, 7, 8. 

regulus peasei, Prodotiscus, 146. 

, Prodotiscus regulus, 146. 

reichenowi, Apus, 49, 51. 

, Prodotiscus insignis, 145, 

repetens, Pipilo maculatus, 130. 
rhodesise, Colius striatus, 65. 
Rhodopechys sanguinea aliena, 27. 
richardsoni, Saltator grandis, 124, 

Riparia paludicola minor, 31. 



[Vol. lviii, 

Riparia paludicola newtoni, subsp. 
nov., 31. 

schoensis, 31. 

Robin, 123. 

Roller, Abyssinian, 30. 

rosaceus, JEgithalus caudatus, 44. 

rosea, Mecistura, 44. 

rovumse, Erythropygia barbata, 64. 

rufa, Muscipeta, 15. 

, Tchitrea, 15. 

rufigena, Caprimulgus, 34. 
Rufipes, 13. 

• picta, 13. 

vulgaris, 13. 

rufonuchalis blanchardi, Parus, 95. 

, Parus rufonuchalis, 95. 

rufus, Tetrao, 13. 

, Xeocephus, 14, 15. 

ruwenzorii, Caprimulgus, 34. 

sacra, Demigretta, 54. 
salimalii, Erythrina synoica, 95. 
Saltator grandis richardsoni, subsp. 

nov., 124, 125. 

vigorsii, 124, 125. 

Salvador ii, Lybius undatus, 67. 
Sandgrouse, 31. 
Sandpiper, Purple, 122. 

, Red-legged, 8. 

, Wood-, 122. 

sandwichensis alaudinus, Passer- 

culus, 129. 
brunnescens, Passerculus, 129, 


wetmorei, Passerculus, 129. 

sanguinea aliena, Rhodopechys, 27. 
sarudnyi, Caprimulgus europseus, 

32, 33. 

, Muscicapa striata, 148. 

satyra, Tragopan, 86, 88. 
schoensis, Riparia paludicola, 31. 
sclateri, Scotornis climacurus, 19, 

Scolopax erythropus, 8. 

grisea, 13. 

Scopus umbretta, 17. 
Scotornis, 19. 

climacurus, 18. 

clarus, 20. 

■ — • — nigricans, 19. 

sclateri, 19, 20. 

nigricans, 19. 

scriptoricauda, Dendromus, 146, 

senex, Lybius, 66. 
Serinus, 31. 
sharpii, Othyphantes stuhlmanni, 


shelleyi, Cypselus, 50. 

, Trachyphonus, 117. 

, erythrocepJialus, 84, 

Sheppardia bensoni, sp. nov., 138. 

gunningi, 138. 

Shoveller, 63. 
Shrike, Grey Cuckoo-, 76. 
simplex, Viridibucco, 11, 78. 
Sitta canadensis canadensis, 6. 

■ villosa, 6. 

whiteheadi, 4, 6, 26. 

kruperi, 6. 

neumayer subcaeruleus, 

subsp. nov., 96. 

tephronota, 96. 


Skua, Arctic, 54. 

, Buffon's, 122. 

, Long-tailed, 81. 

Smilorhis leucotis kenyse, 

Snipe, 70. 

somalicus, Trachyphonus margari- 

tatus, 107. 
Sparrow, Savannah, 129. 
sparsimfasciatus, Astur tachiro, 

spiloptera, Uria aalge, 54. 
Spinus atricepsy 134, 135. 

notatus forreri, 135, 136. 

griscomi, subsp. nov., 


notatus, 135-136. 

pinus macropterus, 134. 

■ perplex us, subsp. nov., 

134, 135. 

pinus, 134, 135. 

Stachyris, 82. 

guttata tonkinensis, nom. 

nov., 82. 

poliocephala diluta, 82. 

Starling, European, 43. 

, Glossy, 31. 

stellaris capensis, Botaurus, 11. 
stelleri, Polysticta, 123. 
Stercorarius longicaudus, 122. 

parasiticus, 54. 

Sterna elegans, 13. 

stictilsema marwitzi, Chsetura, 51. 

Stilt, Black- winged, 81. 

Stint, Temminck's, 122. 

stoliczse, Erythrina synoica, 95, 96. 

Stork, 56, 57. 

, Black, 43. 

, White, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43. 

striata balearica, Muscicapa, 148. 

berliozi, Muscicapa, 148. 

clelandi, Oeopelia, 115. 

, Geopelia, 115. 

neumanni, Muscicapa, 148. 

Vol. lviii.] 



striata placida, Ceopelia, 115. 

sarudnyi, Muscicapa, 148. 

tranquilla, Geopelia, 115. 

striatus minor, Coitus, 65. 

rhodesise, Colius, 65. 

.stu/ihnanni nyikse, Othyphantes, 

— — , Othyphantes stuhlmanni, 112. 
— — sharpii, Othyphantes, 113. 
suahelica, Tchitrea viridis, 100, 

101, 102. 
suahelicus, Trachyphonus vail- 

lantii, 107. 
subcseruleus, Sitta neumayer, 96. 
subplacens, Charmosyna, 47. 
subpallida, Coracina novseliol- 

landids, 73, 74. 
Sugar-Bird, 70. 
(Sula) fregata, 12. 
Sula leucogaster, 70. 
superciliosa palliata, Plagiospiza, 

, Plagiospiza superciliosa, 

suschkini, Trachyphonus vaillantii, 

106, 107. 
svecica, Luscinia svecica, 122. 
Swallow, Brown-rumped, 8. 
Swift, 49. 

Sylvia cantillans cantillans, 7. 
nana theresae, subsp. nov., 

synoica beicki, Erythrina, 95, 96. 

, Erythrina synoica, 96. 

salimalii, Erythrina, 95. 

stoliczse, Erythrina, 95, 96. 

tachiro, Astur tachiro, 100. 

sparsimfasciatus, Astur, 100. 

talautensis, Terpsiphone cinnamo- 
mea, 16. 

tasmanica, Coracina melanops, 72. 

Tchitrea, 14, 102. 

perspicillata perspicillata, 

100, 101, 102. 

plumbeiceps, 100, 101. 

rufa, 15. 

viridis suahelica, 100, 101, 


Teal, Baikal, 60. 

, Black- winged, 63. 

, Brazilian, 59, 61,62, 63. 

, Blue -winged, 63. 

, Cinnamon, 86, 88. 

, Ring-necked, 62, 63. 

, Schuyl's, 60, 61, 63. 

teitensis, Indicator minor, 118, 119, 

Telacanthura ussheri, 51. 

temminckii, Calidris, 122. 
tenebrosus, Pipilo fuscus, 132. 
tephronota, Sitta neumayer, 96. 
Terpsiphone, 14, 15. 

atrocaudata, 14. 

bedfordi, 14. 

■ — — cinnamomea cinnamomea, 

15, 16. 

talautensis, 16. 

unirufa, 15, 16. 

cyanescens, 15. 

ignea, 14. 

— — mutata, 15. 

nigriceps, 14. 

paradisi, 14. 

■ — ■ borneensis, 14. 

periophthalmica, 14. 

tricolor neumanni, 15. 

— ■ — unirufa, nom. nov., 15. 
Tetrao rufus, 13. 
Thalasseus ichla, 13. 
T halassidroma fregetta, 1 2 . 
— ■ — leucogaster, 97. 

■ melanogaster, 97. 

— ■ — oceanica, 11, 96, 97. 
theresse, Montifringilla, 10. 

•, Sgbvia nana, 10. 

thiogaster, Lybius undatus, 67. 
Thringorhina, 82. 

guttata diluta, 82. 

Tit, Great, 123. 

, Lapp, 122. 

— ■ — -, British Long-tailed, 44. 

, Northern Willow, 122. 

— - — -,Penduline, 81. 

tonkinensis, Stachyris guttata, 82. 

torquatum, Nettion, 62. 

torquatus brunnescens, Pipilo, 131. 

, Bucco, 105. 

congicus, Lybius, 104. 

, Melanobucco, 105. 

guerrerensis, Pipilo, 131. 

— — irroratus, Lybius, 105, 106. 

, Lybius, 104, 105, 106. 

— — , torquatus, 105, 106. 

-^, Pipilo, 131. 

, torquatus, 131. 

pumilio, Lybius, 105. 

zombse, Lybius, 104, 105, 106. 

Towhee, Spotted, 130. 
Trachyphonus erythrocephalus 

erythrocephalus, 116, 117. 

gallarum, 116, 117. 

jacksoni, 116, 117. 

shelleyi, 84, 117. 

versicolor, 116, 117. 

— — margaritatus kingi, 107. 

— somalicus, 107. 

shelleyi, 117. 



[Vol. lviii. 

Trachyphonus vaillantii, 106. 

nobilis, 107. 

suahelicus, 107. 

■ — ■ — suschkini, 106, 107. 

versicolor, 117. 

Tragopan, 86, 88. 
Tragopan satyra, 86, 88. 
tranquilla, Geopelia striata, 115. 
tricolor micrus, Pycnonotus, 113. 
— ■ — ■ neumanni, Terpsiphone, 15. 
tridactylus, Picoides, 122. 
Tringa bewickii, 8. 

erythropus, 8, 122. 

glareola, 122. 

nebularia, 122. 

trochilus, Phylloscopus, 7. 
tropica, Cymodroma, 98, 99. 

, Fregetta, 100. 

tsanse, Lybius, 67. 
tubulata, Cymodroma, 99. 
Turacus fischeri fischeri, 111. 

— zanzibaricus, subsp. 

nov., 111. 
T urdus musicus musicus, 122. 
— — novsehollandise, 72. 

pilaris, 122. 

turneri, Colius leucocephalus, 66. 
Turnstone, 122. 
Twite, 123. 

ugandee, Lybius guifsobalito, 83. 

umbretta, Scopus, 17. 

undatus leucogenys, Lybius, 67. 

, Lybius undatus, 67. 

salvadorii, Lybius, 67. 

thiogaster, Lybius, 67. 

unirufa, Terpsiphone cinnamomea, 

15, 16. 
unwini, Caprimulgus europseus, 

21, 34. 
urbica, Hirundo, 13. 
UWa aaZ^e aalge, 54. 

aaZgre albionis, 54. 

hyperborea, 54. 

tera, 54. 

Urocissa cserulea, 72. 

erythrorhyncha alticola, nom. 

nov., 72. 

cserulea, 71, 72. 

urungensis, Barbatula leucolaima, 

82, 83. 
ussheri, Telacanthura, 51. 

vaillantii suahelicus, Trachyphonus, 

suschkini, Trachyphonus, 106, 

, Trachyphonus, 106, 

vaillantii nobilis, Trachyphonus, 

variegatus jubaensis, Indicator, 118. 
versicolor, Trachyphonus, 117. 

, erythrocephalus, 1 1 6, 1 1 7 . 

vexillarius, Cosmetornis, 35. 
vigorsii, Saltator grandis, 124, 125. 
villosa, Sitta canadensis, 6. 
virenticeps colimse, Buarremon, 125. 
virescens, Pipilo, 131. 
virenticeps, Buarremon virenticeps, 

125, 126. 
Viridibucco leucomystax, 77, 78. 

simplex, 77, 78. 

viridis suahelica, Tchitrea, 100, 

101, 102. 
vittata, Amazonetta, 60, 61, 63. 
Volatinia jacarina atronitens, 130. 

diluta, subsp. nov., 130. 

vulgaris, Rufipes, 13. 
Vultur chincou, 94, 95. 

waddelli, Babax lanceolatus, 76, 77. 

Warbler, Bar -throated, 48. 

■, Eversmann's, 122. 

, Fan- tailed, 81. 

■, Spectacled, 81. 

, Subalpine, 7. 

: , Willow-, 7. 

Waxwing, 122. 

westralensis, Coracina novsehol- 
landise, 73. 

wetmorei, Passerculus sandwich- 
ensis, 127. 

Wheatear, 32. 

Whimbrel, 122. 

whiteheadi, Sitta canadensis, 4,6,26. 

Wigeon, 16. 

winifredse, Artisornis, 139. 

woodfordi, Dupetor flavicollis, 46. 

, Nesoclopeus, 47. 

Woodpecker, Arabian, 31. 

, Three-toed, 122. 

woodwardi, Buccanodon, 84. 

Xeocephus, 13, 14, 15. 
rufus, 14, 15. 

yemenensis, Pseudacanthis, 30. 

zanzibaricus, Turacus fischeri, 111. 
Zeocephus, 13. 

zombse albigularis, Lybius, 105. 
— , Lybius, 104, 105, 106. 

, Melanobucco, 105. 

, Lybius torquatus, 104, 105, 

106. '